Ocean waves have been observed by the satellite remote sensing data operated at the microwaves. In particular, the surface capillary-gravity waves which are sensitive to the surface-wind stress and whose crest perpendicular represented as the wind direction are studied by many oceanographers and scientists. On the other hand, there are few papers of the gravity waves as a swell. But it is important that the motion of gravity waves were observed and studied because it is necessary to plan the disaster privation and make the environmental assessment in the coastal. Therefore, it makes a method of estimating the wave heights from the backscattering coefficients in the SAR images. In this method, the wave heights are estimated by using a composite-scattering model and the image wavenumber spectrum obtainable from SAR. In addition, the wavelength and wave-direction are also estimated by this spectrum. Finally, these values are good agreement with the values of the wave recorder in the coastal.
The occurrence of a great forest fire in Indonesia in this summer gave impacts on various phases in social and economic activities. The smog caused by the fire influences neighboring countries in addition to Indonesia. To prevent the damage area extending, we need to get information about present conditions on the disaster. However, since a target area is broad in this case, it's difficult to get needed information. We have used Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) to monitor this disaster. DMSP detects slight emission such as fires at night and GMS collects data on cloud every hour. By using two different types of satellite data, we can get information on the location of hot spots and spread of smog caused by the fire. Time sequential data we have processed from GMS clarifies movement of the smog. From DMSP, we can detect the locations of hot spots. On September 21, there were many hot spots in the southern part of the Kalimantan Island. On September 30, however, a number of the hot spots in that area became smaller. On the other hand, a number of hot spots in the Sumatra Island didn't change for more than 10 days. Smog generated in the Kalimantan Island moves westward; Singapore, Malaysia, and so on. The spread of smog still remains as of September 30. As mentioned, by using two satellites of different characteristic, we can clarify the change in conditions of the hot snots and the movement of smoe venerated by the fire.
As assessment of crack width with precision of the order of 10-1 mm is required in periodical crack inspection of concrete structures, crack measurement has been performed by using crack-scale manually and/or by using image processing with close range photograph. In the image processing especially, closer photograph images are required for more precise measurement of cracks, which usually have width of about 0.1 mm, because of the restriction of inherent resolving power of imaging devices. This paper presents a crack measuring algorithm in which images of different resolution are generated from a closer range photograph and hierarchically structured from fine to coarser in order to extract concrete crack automatically by using a single spatial filter rather than using a series of spatial filters. And it is also designed to offer processing time saving from data exploding of closer range imaging with high resolution. As a result of experiments, more than 80% of cracks above 0.1mm width are extracted automatically and RMS. error in measuring crack width is performed less than 0.19mm. It is concluded that our approach to crack measurement shows much possibility of a practical crack measuring system, which can be substituted for a conventional measurement in human-dependent inspection.
The Digital Chart of The World, so-called DCW, is the most frequently used digital global base map. The DCW has 17 layers including seashore lines, national boundaries, land covers, vegetations etc. It was produced by digitizing the Operational Navigation Chart (ONC) with the scale of 1: 1, 000, 000. In this study, the accuracy of the DCW was investigated by comparing it with local maps with the scale of 1: 50, 000 and by comparing with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. The maximum errors of about 450 meters in the latitude direction and about 640 meters in the longitude direction were acquired in 27 measured points in Denmark, Japan, Canada, and New Zealand. The result shows that the DCW is not correctly transformed to WGS84. Better digital global base map is required for the purpose of geometric registration of satellite images with 500m or 250m resolution.