JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 5 , Issue 1
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • MASAHIRO KATO, HITOSHI KONISHI, TAKAO SATO, MITSUHO HIRATA, TAKASHI KA ...
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 1-4
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By use of an apparatus previously proposed by the authors, dew and bubble points were measured at atmospheric pressure for the ternary system of methanol-water-dioxane. Vapor-liquid equilibrium relationships for the ternary system were calculated from the experimental dew and bubble points by applying the thermodynamic relations previously used for testing consistency. Equilibrium data for the system were also measured by using the Smith-Bonner still and compared with the calculated results. As a result, the estimated equilibrium values agreed fairly well with the experimental data and the reliability of the present method has been confirmed.
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  • MASAYUKI TODA, NORIO KOMORI, SHOZABURO SAITO, SIRO MAEDA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 4-13
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hydraulic transport of solid materials through pipe bends was investigated experimentally. Four kinds of 90° pipe bends of which the radii of curvature were 0, 12, 24 and 48cm, were made of polyacrylate pipe. The pressure drops were measured over sections of about 5 m, each including a pipe bend. The solid particles used in this experiment were glass beads (0.5-2.0mm diameter) and polystyrene particles (1.0mm diameter).
    The behavior of particles in pipe bends was found to be very much complicated by the effect of gravitational and centrifugal forces and the secondary flow of fluid.
    The results of the pressure-drop measurement were as follows, a) The horizontal pipe Bend : In the case of polystyrene particles, even though delivered particle concentration exceeded about 20%, the effect of particle concentration mc on the pressure drop did not appear to be the same as in the case of a straight pipeline. On the other hand, in the case of glass particles the additional pressure drop, which was nearly constant regardless of flow rate, increased with increasing particle concentration except where R=0 and 12cm. Moreover, the additional pressure drop was correlated by the dimensionless term Um2/gR (ρsw-1) and mc. b) The vertical pipe bend : It was found from experiment that both polystyrene and glass particles showed additional pressure drop, which was nearly constant regardless of the flow rate, similar to the case of horizontal pipe bends.
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  • KAKUSABURO ONDA, HIROSHI TAKEUCHI, KATSUROKU TAKAHASHI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 13-19
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Relation between column efficiency and plate efficiency in a rectifying column is investigated by considering the liquid mixing on the plate. Under the assumption that the vapor on the plate is in equilibrium with the liquid at the center of the plate, the column efficiency is derived as a function of the plate efficiency, λ(=mV/L) and the mixing parameter F for the case where the equilibrium curve is given as a straight line. It is shown that the results can be applied by using the mean value of λ in case the equilibrium curve is not a straight line.
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  • SHOZO TANAKA, JIRO YAMADA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 20-26
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In an azeotropic distillation column, the rate of net flow and the composition of net flow for both stripping and rectifying sections can be calculated from the limiting conditions of the separation desired. The pinch points are dotted on the radial lines starting from the point of net flow composition by trial and error, and locus of the pinch points are traced on the triangular diagram by the way of connecting the pinch points. Each minimum reflux ratio of stripping and rectifying sections can be calculated from the quantitative ratio of vapor and liquid of the operating line passing the point of intersection of locus line and feed line, and the larger of the two values shall be defined as the minimum reflux ratio of the system. For example, we illustrate the graphical calculation method for AcOH-H2O-BuOAc system and AcOH-H2O-EtOAc system.
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  • KAKUSABURO ONDA, HIROSHI TAKEUCHI, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI, KENJIRO YOKOTA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 27-33
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Simultaneous absorption of hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions was studied, and theoretical equations for the rate of absorption were derived. Experimental results were in good agreement with theory. Selectivity for hydrogen sulphide is also discussed.
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  • ISAO KOMASAWA, TERUHIKO INOUE, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 34-39
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Alkylation of benzene with straight-chain olefins (from hexene to decene) in the presence of strong sulfuric acid was studiedat a carefully controlled low temperature. The rate determinations were carried out under the condition of complete elimination of masstransfar resistance. The reaction was found to occur by a homogeneous mechanism in acid phase alone, and reasonable correlation of reaction rates with sulfuric acid strength and reactant concentrations was also obtained.
    In addition to the carbonium ion mechanism, all the isomeric ions were found to have equal stabilities when they attained the equilibrium distribution before the attack on benzene.
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  • HIROSHI KUBOTA, SHINZO OMI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 39-43
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The kinetics of polymerization with deposition of polymer particles, such as emulsion polymerization and precipitation polymerization from homogeneous monomer or monomersolvent mixture, was investigated. Asymptotic solutions to give the average number of radicals per polymer particle correlated with reaction conditions are demonstrated.
    By using the relations obtained it was possible to predict quantitatively the effect of polymer yield, number of polymer particles and initiator concentration on the rate of polymerization.
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  • AKIRA TAZAWA, SHINZO OMI, HIROSHI KUBOTA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 44-50
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rate of emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile has been investigated under widely variable experimental conditions such as initiator concentration, emulsifier concentration and monomer-water ratio. The results obtained were interpreted reasonably well by kinetic equations, which were proposed by assuming that the reaction in polymer particles proceeds under the slow termination regime and that the surface of polymer particles alone plays a role in propagation.
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  • ISAMU TANAKA, HISASHI SHINOHARA, HIDEHARU HIROSUE, YASUHIKO TANAKA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 51-57
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The elutriation rate of fine particles was measured in the various systems of fluidized beds ; gas-solid and liquid-solid, and continuous and batch fluidized systems.
    From experiments on the continuous fluidized bed with two particle-size system, that is, fine and coarse particles, it appeared that the concentration of fines was kept at a constant value Cs, throughout the bed height except in the space near the overflow pipe.
    The elutriation rate coefficients of fines were calculated based on Cs.
    Correlating the elutriation rate coefficients with the dimensionless groups introduced from the material and momentum balance equations, an empirical equation has been derived within ±25% deviation.
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  • ISAMU TANAKA, HISASHI SHINOHARA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 57-62
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transport Disengaging Height (T. D. H.) was studied theoretically and experimentally for both continuous and batch fluidized beds.
    The theoretical elutriation rate of fines above the T. D. H., Vt, was calculated by use of the Maxwell-Bolzmann energy distribution, and it showed good agreement with the experimental value for the continuous fluidized bed.
    The theoretical values of the T. D. H., which were defined as Z at V=1.01Vt, coincided fairly well with the present and reported experimental results.
    The elutriation height coefficients a were found empirically to increase with increase in particle diameter and with decrease in superficial velocity.
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  • KAZUO NAKADA, MASATO TANAKA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 62-68
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using a new type of torque meter with an extremely high sensitivity, some attempts have been made to get more detailed information than ever about coalescence and dispersion in a stirred liquid-liquid system. A dimensionless empirical equation could be derived relating the perfect-dispersing time, defined from the transient characteristics of torque received by a stirrer''s shaft, to the several representative dimensionless groups. Furthermore it was made clear how much portions of the entire energy given to the liquid-liquid system are directly responsible for the dispersing process itself.
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  • SETSUJI TONE, ISAO ODA, KOJI KAWAMURA, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 68-74
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The flow pattern of solids within stirred beds in batch operation was studied by following tracer particle movement in a cylindrical tube. In addition, in stirred-fluidized and moving beds with continuous flow of solids, the F-curve to a step input of a tracer was determined by the electric capacitance method under various conditions. From the observation of solids movement in a stirred bed in batch operation and characteristics of the F-curves, a flow model for the stirred moving bed was developed by considering a plug flow zone, two perfect mixing zones and a dead space zone with a circulation of solids within the beds, and the F-function was derived according to the flow model. The model parameters are evaluated by matching the F-function to the experimental data, and the effect of operating conditions on the model parameters is discussed.
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  • KEIZO KONOKI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 74-79
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    First, the relation between installation of storage and propagation of subsystem failure through the system is discussed in connection with cost. Criterion formula is derived.
    Example : NH3 and urea plant
    Efficiency ; NH3 98% CO2 99% Urea 96%. Then instantaneous capacity of NH3 and
    Urea plant shall be +2% and +5% over average capacity, provided that storage
    for NH3 only is installed and not for CO2. This result is actual design practice.
    Another theme is active parallel redundancy, which is thought to be favorable for system
    efficiency improvement.
    Basic criterion for the above is
    ∫p1(τ)dτ ?? 2∫p2(τ)dτ
    where P1 and P2 are production function for a single stream and one stream of a two-stream system, respectively. Some factors and conditions for estimation of this production function are discussed.
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  • A. B. PONTER, A. P. BOYES
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 80-83
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SHINJI NAGATA, MASABUMI NISHIKAWA, TAKASHI KAYAMA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 83-85
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is concerned with the correlation of heat transfer coefficients to heating and cooling jackets and also with the determination of an adequate value of the exponent to the viscosity correction term.
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  • YASUHIRO MURAKAMI, KATSUMASA FUJIMOTO, SHINICHIRO UOTANI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 85-86
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper deals with an examination of the hypothesis for striation thickness by Mohr.
    The effect of viscosity ratio on striation thickness is examined in a cone rotor-type mixer as a uniform shear system, and it is concluded that the effect of the viscosity ratio might be negligible in a system where a minor component is inset in a miscible major component of different viscosity. The authors have shown the phenomenon of formation of particles of minor component in the range of viscosity ratio μdc>3 and μdc<0.6.
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  • SHIGEO GOTO, MASAKAZU MATSUBARA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 87-90
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To estimate the performance of a reactor with extraction, the efficiency of extractive reaction is proposed and calculated for first order reversible reaction. Effects of extraction rate and reactor type on the performance of an extractive reactor are investigated in terms of the proposed efficiency. It is shown that efficiency generally increases with extraction rate, but that there exist some exceptional cases.
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  • SHIGEO GOTO, MASAKAZU MATSUBARA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 90-92
    Published: March 31, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To assure the profitability of extractive reaction, the optimization of an extractive stirred tank reactor coupled with separators where the manufacturing cost is minimized is investigated.
    A diagram which allows immediate choice of the optimal system among three alternatives is provided for first-order reversible reaction.
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