JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 14 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • HYO KWANG BAE, KUNIO NAGAHAMA, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An apparatus is newly designed and constructed for investigation of high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium in the temperature range -50°C to 50°C at pressures up to 100 atm.
    The visual type of static apparatus is distinguished by the inclusion of a specially designed sampling device for liquid phase to reduce experimental error during the sampling, and of a magnetically driven agitator by which the vapor phase is dispersed into the liquid phase within the cell.
    Using this apparatus, the binary vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the ethylene-propylene system at -10.08°, 0.07°, 10.07° and 20.14°C, and ethylene-1-butene at -0.01°, 10.01° and 20.20°C are measured. The data obtained are correlated by using three equations of state. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data except in the region close to the critical point.
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  • TAKAO KOKUGAN, MASARU SHIMIZU
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 7-12
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Apparent thermal diffusion factors of a three-component gas mixture composed of helium, argon, and krypton were determined by measuring local thermal diffusion factors. The dependence of the three binary thermal diffusion factors on composition and temperature were first studied over a wide range of experimental conditions and three empirical relations were obtained, as suggested by Laranjeira and Brown. Experiments showed that the relation of Van der Valk between apparent thermal diffusion factors was valid for any composition. Experimental results were in agreement with the calculations from Waldmann''s theory. The reciprocals of the ternary apparent thermal diffusion factors vary linearly with the concentration of the third component, except at large mixing ratios. By using this result and Van der Valk''s relations, the ternary apparent thermal diffusion factors can be estimated simply from the binary ones. The conditions in which a ternary apparent thermal diffusion factor is larger than a binary one were determined. Some ways of using the thermal diffusion factor to improve the separation of the mixture were obtained.
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  • MASASHI ASAEDA, JIRO WATANABE, YASUSHI MATONO, KOJI KOJIMA, RYOZO TOEI
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 13-19
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experimental studies of combined counter diffusion in gaseous and adsorbed phases (propylenehelium, propylene-argon and ethylene-helium systems) through plugs of fine particles of activated carbon were performed in the transition diffusion region to obtain relatively large surface diffusion rates comparable to those of gas-phase diffusion in the pore space and also relatively large total pressure gradient in the plug in spite of being isobaric at both ends of the plug.
    The observed results were compared with the theoretical ones obtained by assuming negligible adsorption resistance on the inner surface of the porous plug to obtain good agreement between them. The results confirm the existence of intimate interactions between diffusion in gas phase and adsorbed phase. The transfer mechanisms of combined diffusion are discussed in detail.
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  • KAZUO KONDO, KATSUHIDE KITA, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 20-25
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel separation technique using liquid surfactant membranes containing a mobile carrier has recently attracted practical interest from the point of view of recycling of industrial resources or energy conservation. In this work, the extraction of copper was carried out in a stirred transfer cell, using liquid surfactant membranes containing benzoylacetone as a mobile carrier. At the early stage of copper extraction, it was found that the effects of mass transfer in the liquid membranes and the stripping reaction within water droplets on the overall extraction rate of copper could be neglected, and that copper ion was completely accepted into the water droplets in the emulsion phase. The experimental results could be explained by a diffusion model accompanied by chelating complex formation in the aqueous phase close to the external interface of the membranes. The rate constant of the chelating complex formation and the mass transfer coefficient in the aqueous phase were obtained.
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  • MORIO OKAZAKI, HIROYUKI KAGE, FUMIO IIJIMA, RYOZO TOEI
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 26-31
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    A new approximate description of adsorption equilibrium of wastewater containing a number of unknown pollutants has been developed by using such a comprehensive index of concentration as TOC, BOD or COD. The description has been constructed on the basis of a new concept, "Characteristic Distribution of Langmuir Coefficient", which is to be identified by the observed differential adsorption equilibrium data. The accuracy of prediction of the integral adsorption equilibrium using this description has been demonstrated by several experiments.
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  • SHIN-ICHI NAKAO, SHOJI KIMURA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 32-37
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To establish an effective method of quantitative analysis in ultrafiltration, the rejection of six solutions of various molecular weights by cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membranes was studied. At first, the effects of concentration polarization were corrected. Mass transfer coefficients determined by the velocity variation method agreed very well with the Deissler correlation. Next, by using Spiegler and Kedem equations, transport of solute through ultrafiltration membrane was analyzed. A method of curve-fitting was found effective to determine two parameters, i.e. solute permeability P and reflection coefficient σ. Finally, these parameters obtained from experiments for various solutes were analyzed using the modified "pore theory", and were correlated with the ratio of the radius of solute and pore and with the effective pore length. Structure of the membrane was estimated from these results.
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  • YASUO HATATE, TOMIHISA IKEURA, MASASHI SHINONOME, KAZUO KONDO, FUMIYUK ...
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 38-43
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The suspension polymerization of styrene under ultrasonic irradiation was carried out in batch and continuous stirred tank reactors. In both reactors, it was confirmed that ultrasonic irradiation was an effective method to prevent the agglomeration between droplets and sticking of droplets to the reactor wall.
    In the batch reactor, the effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the conversion of monomer and the average molecular weight of polymer were negligibly small.
    In the continuous reactor, the experimental results of the conversion and the average molecular weight showed that the interaction between droplets in the reactor was not small. The calculated results in the two extreme cases of complete micro-mixing and complete segregation showed that the conversion and the average molecular weight were noticeably affected by the interaction between droplets in the region, where the gel effect became remarkable.
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  • SHIGEHARU MOROOKA, KIYOSHI IKEMIZU, HISASHI KISHIKAWA, YASUO KATO
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 44-48
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The degradation rate of water-soluble poly(oxyethylene) (PEG) was studied under the condition of chemical reaction rate controlling, using a bubble column of 0.05 m I.D. and 0.6 m high. The degradation rate of PEG, of which initial viscosity-average molecular weight is 32, 000, is a function of viscosity-average molecular weight, dissolved ozone concentration and OH- concentration. The activation energy of the reaction is found to be 6.2 × 104 J ⋅ mol-1. An empirical equation of the degradation rate of PEG is obtained in the range of pH=5.5-8.1.
    The mechanism of the ozonation was studied on the basis of IR and NMR spectrochemical analysis, and a degradation scheme of PEG is proposed.
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  • SHOICHI KIMURA, AKIHIKO KAMISUNA, SETSUJI TONE, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 49-53
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Deactivation of catalyst was dealt with from the viewpoint of active site coverage by coke deposition. Catalyst activity and acidity were simultaneously measured in the isomerization of isopentene on commercial silica-alumina catalyst. This revealed that activity of deactivated catalyst was simply dominated by the concentration of Brönsted acid sites remaining available and that the activity at any time relative to the initial time was equal to the fraction of active sites not covered with coke. Based on this simple rule, an n-th order rate expression was justified to properly represent the catalyst deactivation.
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  • YASUO KOUSAKA, KIKUO OKUYAMA, MOTOAKI ADACHI, KENJI EBIE
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 54-58
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    The charge of aerosols generated by various methods was measured by a visual experimental technique. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Aerosol particles generated by condensation after evaporation almost reach the Boltzmann charge distribution when ions are mixed as condensation nuclei, but have a lower charge when no ions are mixed. 2) The charge of aerosol particles generated by chemical reaction depends on the aerosol material and the kinds of reaction. Metal aerosol particles generated by combustion are highly charged, but particles of tobacco smoke are not highly charged. Aerosol particles of ammonium chloride generated by chemical reaction, on the other hand, are not charged at all. 3) The charge of aerosols dried after atomization seems to be affected by the state of solution or suspension in nebulizer. Di-octyl sebacate particles are almost uncharged, sodium chloride particles are highly charged, and polystyrene latex particles have the highest charge among the aerosols tested. 4) Aerosols generated by mechanical dispersion have a charge higher than the Boltzmann charge.
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  • HIDEJI YAMAMOTO, HIROSHI HASEGAWA, YOSHIO HARANO
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 59-64
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    From the changes of the light transmittance and the electrical conductivity of solution with elapsed time and from the size distribution of the final product crystals, the impurity effect of L-aspartic acid on the heading process was studied kinetically, under the following conditions: agitation rate, nr [rpm]=567, 630, 730; temperature [°K]=298; initial solute concentration C0[g-mol/l] = 1.12×10-1-1.67×10-1; supersaturation ratio, S[-] (=C/CS) =1.5-3.0; impurity concentration, Cimp, 0 [g-mol/l]=0-1.48×10-2; ξimp, o [%]=0-10.
    The impurity content in the crystal, Wimp, increased linearly with increase in ξimp, 0, accompanying changes of crystal form from neeedle-like to granular, and suggesting the chemical incorporation of impurity in the crystal lattice.
    The rates of crystallite growth and nucleation were markedly suppressed by impurity. They were given by dr/dt=k1''Sm'' and dN/dt=knNm2Snn, respectively, where m'' is the solute number in a two-dimensional critical nucleus, from which the two-dimensional nucleation parameters such as free edge energy, radius of critical nucleus, and activation energy were obtained. Nm is the number of crystals with radius larger than rmin, which is the smallest radius among the crystals breeding the secondary nucleation and was estimated as 14-135 μ, depending on S, nr, and Wsimp.
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  • HIRONORI MORI, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI, SHOICHI SHIMIZU
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 65-70
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    Gluconobacter suboxydans was cultivated in a fed-batch culture with a DO-stat under the condition that none of the components in the basal medium limited the growth of the microorganism and the production of sorbose. Final concentration of sorbose reached 460 g/l after 16 hrs with CSL medium and 628 g/l after 14 hrs with YE medium, respectively. Conversion ratio of sorbitol to sorbose was almost maintained at about 0.9 for CSL medium and about 1.0 for YE medium during the cultivation. The effect of sorbose concentration on growth was investigated in test tube culture. Decrease in specific growth rate and a lag phase were observed with increase in sorbose concentration in culture medium. The growth was inhibited considerably at 300 g/l of sorbose concentration and was not observed at sorbose concentrations over 510 g/l. The effect of osmotic pressure and water activity on growth was examined. Growth rate and sorbose production rate decreased as osmotic pressure increased or water activity decreased due to the accumulation of sorbose.
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  • KAZUNARI OHGAKI, TAKASHI MIZUHAYA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 71-72
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • HIROYUKI KAGE, IKUYA HASHIZUME, MORIO OKAZAKI, RYOZO TOEI
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 73-75
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • TOSHIHIRO OODO, YOICHI TAKASHIMA, MASATOSHI HANZAWA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 76-78
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • NORIHIRO WATANABE, MASAKAZU MATSUBARA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 78-80
    Published: February 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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