JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 30 , Issue 3
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
Research Papers
  • Clifford Y. Tai
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 373-381
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The two-step crystal growth model has been employed to analyze the crystal growth rate data and much useful kinetic information is revealed. This report summarizes the important findings existing in the literature. Firstly, experimental methods are suggested to determine the parameters in the two-step model and the factors which influence the mass-transfer and surface-reaction coefficients are identified. Then the controlling step of a crystal growth process is judged from the effectiveness factor. Finally, the secondary nucleation rate data are correlated with the interfacial supersaturation, which is a variable appearing in the two-step model. Therefore, the crystal growth rate and secondary nucleation rate are closely related. As a conclusion, crystal growth and secondary nucleation may be considered as coupled phenomenon.
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  • Gérard Charbit, Françoise ...
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 382-387
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Waste waters from the essential oils industry contain terpenes which have to be recovered, and pervaporation proved to be an efficient method for that purpose. In order to identify the mass transfer limitations during the pervaporation of two particular solutes, linalool and eucalyptol, experiments were performed with different thicknesses of polydimethylsiloxane membranes under isothermal conditions. Mathematical treatment based on a resistances-in-series model shows a good agreement between experimental data and theory. Moreover it can be shown also that under certain conditions, the limiting step can result from the transfer in the liquid phase, even though in most cases of pervaporation, the limitation lies on the transfer within the polymeric material. Estimation of the diffusivities of the two terpenes in the polymer can be done from this treatment.
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  • Naoto Ohmura, Kunio Kataoka, Masato Utsunomiya, Daisuke Shindo, Tadahi ...
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 388-395
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Instabilities of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction were investigated in a Taylor vortex flow reactor with constant axial flow regarded as a one-dimensional open reaction-diffusion system. The effective axial diffusion coefficient was used as one of the controlling parameters, and changed by varying the rotating speed of the inner cylinder. Effluent from an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor was supplied as the feed into the test reactor so as to clearly specify the inlet condition of concentration oscillation. The feed rate was changed as another controlling parameter. Irregular disturbances appeared at low-concentrations of Ce4+ when the inlet condition was singly periodic oscillation, whereas no remarkable irregular oscillation could be found when the inlet condition was dynamical equilibrium. The spatio-temporal oscillation patterns were successfully described qualitatively by a numerical simulation based on the ‘Coupled Map Lattice’ method using an Oregonator reaction model. The numerical results also suggested that complex spatial and temporal behavior occurred under the inlet condition of singly periodic oscillation.
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  • Wataru Takatsuji, Hiroyuki Yoshida
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 396-405
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The adsorption of organic acids on a commercial weakly basic resin, DIAION WA30, which has a single type of fixed functional group, appeared feasible technically. Three different organic acids, acetic acid (R′-COOH), malic acid (R″-(COOH)2) and citric acid (R″′-(COOH)3), were used in this experimental study. The adsorption isotherms depended on the way in which the organic acids dissociated in the solution, but were independent of the initial concentration of organic acids. The theoretical equations for the adsorption isotherms were derived by applying the mass action law. In an acetic acid with one carboxylic group in each molecule, the adsorption isotherm was expressed by a Langmuir-type equation. In a malic acid with two carboxylic groups, the theoretical equation for the adsorption isotherm was derived by considering that R″-COOHCOO and R″-(COO)2 ions reacted with the amino group of the weakly basic resin. When the concentration of the acid in the solution is low (pH > 4), R″-(COO)2 ion mainly contributes to adsorption, and as the concentration is high, the contribution of R″-COOHCOO becomes significant. In a citric acid with three carboxylic groups, the theoretical equation was derived by considering that R″′-(COOH)2COO, R″′-COOH(COO)2 and R″′-(COO)3 ions reacted with the resin. R″′-(COO)3 ion mainly contributes to adsorption at low concentration (pH > 5), and the contribution of R″′-COOH(COO)2 and R″′-(COOH)2COO ions become significant with increasing concentration.
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  • Kedar Nath Ghimire, Masaru Ishida
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 406-411
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
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    A new recycling technique named “Sandwiching recycle” is investigated, and its effectiveness in obtaining high recovery yields of the desired component from a multicomponent mixture by means of chromatographic separation is examined. This technique hinders the product from diffusion in such a way that the feed period is sandwiched in between the recycle periods. It is found that sandwiching recycle chromatography is highly effective to increase the yield of the component whose mean retention time is equivalent to its switching time, but that this recycling does not increase the yield of the impure component in the product. Because of the simpleness of its apparatus, this technique can be used for preparative scale separation of mixtures. Detailed features of the recycling method are examined by simulation to recognize what conditions should be taken into consideration to separate the target component from a mixture and to obtain high yield.
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  • M. L. Lu, C. McGreavy, E. K. T. Kam
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 412-420
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new predictive tool exploiting neural network for evaluating thermal conductivity of liquids and mixtures at ambient or saturated pressures, is proposed. It covers a wide range on molecular species including hydrocarbons, alcohols, water as well as inorganics, with values extending over the range of 40 to 700 mW/m/K. A three-layer forward network has been trained using experimental data to provide a preliminary set of weights which are progressively refined. This strategy has been adopted so to make it possible to automatically update the weights as new information becomes available. The predictions are significantly better than any correlation or physico-chemically based models.
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  • Gui Ryong Ahn, Gui-Young Han
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 421-426
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Heat transfer characteristics between bed and the immersed tube has investigated in a circulating fluidized bed. The test facility has the dimension of 2.5 m height and 5.0 cm diameter. The operating ranges of experiment covered the superficial gas velocity of 2.0–6.0 m/sec., solid circulation rate of 20–100 kg/m2 s. Four different sizes of sand particles were employed as the bed material. The effects of operating variables on the heat transfer coefficient were examined. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was correlated in terms of effective suspension density and the qualitative analysis of heat transfer coefficient was made in conjunction with the hydrodynamic characteristics.
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  • Izumi Taniguchi, Yusuke Takamura, Koichi Asano
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 427-433
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to investigate spray properties, measurements of local fluxes of the sprayed liquid, local number fluxes of drops and local drop size distributions were made for wide ranges of liquid and gas flow rates. An empirical correlation for the volume mean diameter of sprayed drops at the nozzle exit was obtained.
    Experimental studies of gas absorption with a spray column were carried out for carbon dioxide-air-water and carbon dioxide-air-aqueous sodium hydroxide solution systems over wide ranges of liquid flow rates, feed gas concentrations and initial alkaline concentrations. The observed data for dimensionless rates of absorption of carbon dioxide were compared with the values predicted by a solid sphere penetration model.
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  • Michito Kanamori, Masayoshi Hiramatsu, Koichi Katsurayama, Fujio Watan ...
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 434-439
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For producing of high quality and high power cold heat energy, the alcohol/activated carbon adsorption heat pump (AHP) with a disk-module-type adsorber, which was composed of super activated carbon (SAC) and actived carbon fiber, was proposed. The heat and mass transfer characteristics in adsorption and regeneration processes of the AHP operation were experimentally investigated. It was found that the adsorption/regeneration cycle period was about 10 times shorter than that of the packed-bed-type adsorber of SAC. The equilibrium adsorption capacity per weight was reduced by SAC modulation, but the cold heat output per unit time of the proposed AHP system was enlarged. The present system works well with regeneration temperatures of around 350 K and readily generates cold heat at around 270 K. It is concluded that AHP fabricated with the proposed disk-module adsorber units can be used as a compact refrigeration unit for generating cold heat energy below 273 K by using a low temperature waste heat energy source.
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  • Masamichi Yoshida, Marc Legros, Hironobu Imakoma, Morio Okazaki
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 440-447
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The governing equations for isothermal drying of slabs of hygroscopic porous material are analyzed to develop a method for the approximate calculation of drying rate curves. Gradual decrease in surface moisture content is incorporated in the model by considering the effect of the desorption isotherm. The proposed method enables one to estimate drying rate curves for any conditions without solving drying equations when the dependence of moisture diffusivity and the desorption isotherm are given as functions of moisture content. Accuracy of the drying rates calculated by the method is examined by comparing with numerical solutions of the drying equations. When one of the internal and superficial mass transfer resistances is dominant, approximate drying rate curves show very good agreement with numerical solutions. When both resistances are comparable, the method underestimates drying rates with errors of less than 6%.
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  • Yunliang Wang, Satoru Komori, Myung Kyoon Chung
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 448-460
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A second-order closure model was developed to predict the thermal dispersion problem behind a line-heat-source in turbulent flow. The exact governing equations of the Reynolds stress, heat flux and other scalar fluctuating quantities were formulated and modeled. Numerical computations were carried out for two kinds of thermal turbulent flows. The distributions of mean and fluctuating quantities of velocity and temperature at different locations downstream of the line-heat-source were obtained and compared with experimental results.
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  • Wilai Luewisutthichat, Atsushi Tsutsumi, Kunio Yoshida
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 461-466
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The bubble characteristics for multi-phase flow systems were studied in a two-dimensional column by direct visual observation together with the image processing of photographs. The effects of operating conditions such as particle sizes, superficial gas and liquid velocities on bubble flow behavior were examined. Bubble size distributions in both two- and three-phase systems operated both semi-batchwise and continuously were found to be fairly well represented by the log-normal distribution. The variation in bubble flow behavior appears to be closely related to the difference in fluidized states of solid particles. In small particle systems (gas-sparged slurry reactors), the bubble flow behavior is similar to that in two-phase systems. On the other hand, larger particle systems (three-phase bubble columns and three-phase fluidized beds) exhibit appreciably different bubble behavior and show the dependency of the gas velocity on the Sauter mean diameter of bubbles and the geometric standard deviation of bubble size distribution.
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  • Makoto Hirata, Tomohiro Ishimine, Akira Hirata
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 467-477
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Simultaneous operation of enzymatic reaction and product separation by liquid extraction was developed for continuous synthesis of peptides with high efficiency by using free enzyme continuously. An organic solvent containing substrates was continuously fed into a bioreactor where the enzyme was freely dissolved in a retained aqueous solution. The substrates were extracted from the organic phase to the aqueous phase, where peptide was enzymatically synthesized, and then the peptide was extracted into the organic phase from the aqueous phase at the same time as it was synthesized. Only the organic solvent containing the product peptide was recovered from the bioreactor.
    In this paper, the precursor of a synthetic sweetener, aspartame, was continuously synthesized from Z-L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine methyl ester with thermoase in a stirred tank by the novel method of extractive reaction. The effects of operational conditions on substrates and product concentrations in both the aqueous and organic phases and the yield in the steady state were studied experimentally and theoretically. The yield increased with the residence time of organic solvent and the stirring rotation rate increased, and an almost complete yield was achieved at 10 h of residence time and 450 min–1 of the stirring rate.
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  • Hiroshi Yamada, Shigeo Goto
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 478-483
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Trickle bed reactors are the most common gas-liquid-solid three-phase reactors involving a solid catalyst, and gaseous and liquid reactants. If solvents in the liquid phase are indissoluble in each other, gas-liquid-liquid-solid four phases exist in the reactor. Deprotection of amino acid was studied in a trickle bed reactor as a typical example of a four-phase system. A reactant (carbobenzoxy phenylalamine) could be dissolved in an organic phase and hydrogenated to a product (phenylalanine) using a Pd/C solid catalyst. Phenylalanine had hydrophilic properties and transferred from the organic phase to the aqueous phase. When two liquids were continuously introduced into the four-phase reactor, the product (phenylalanine) was deposited on the surface of the catalyst and the catalytic activity gradually decreased. Periodic operation was adopted to solve this problem. Only distilled water was periodically introduced into the reactor to wash the catalyst, which could be completely regenerated after this washing period. The optimal reaction period was determined by simulation to obtain a high concentration of the product.
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  • Magdalena Dominguez, Ana M. Mainar, Hector Artigas, Felix M. Royo, Jos ...
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 484-490
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The isobaric vapour-liquid equilibrium has been experimentally studied for the ternary mixture (1-butanol + n-hexane + 1-butylamine) and for the binary mixtures (1-butanol + n-hexane), (1-butanol + 1-butylamine), and (n-hexane + 1-butylamine) at 101.3 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent and they were satisfactorily correlated with the Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC equations. They have been also compared with the results obtained from the application of ASOG and the modified UNIFAC group contribution methods.
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  • Chun-Hua Luo, Shigeyuki Uemiya, Toshinori Kojima
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 491-499
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A reflection-type fiber optic probe was used to measure local solid volume fraction in a cylindrical jetting fluidized bed with a conical distributor using three kinds of particles different in sizes. By analyzing the local voidage fluctuations, the jet contours, and the time-averaged solid volume fraction profiles were studied. The jet extension half angle was found to be much lower than those calculated by Merry’s correlation derived for beds with flat distributors. The solid volume fraction measured on the axis increased almost linearly with the distance from the nozzle. In the annulus, it was about one tenth lower than that at the minimum fluidization. The radial solid volume fraction profile in the jet was found to be parabolic.
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  • Satoru Asai, Hidemi Nakamura, Hideaki Aikawa
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 500-506
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Absorption experiments of H2S into aqueous FeCl3 solutions were performed in an agitated vessel with a flat interface, and the reaction kinetics and mechanism for this system were analyzed using the data of the absorption rates measured over wide ranges of ionic strength, pH and temperature. It was found that the species which reacts with H2S is FeOH2+, and the absorption rates could be explained quantitatively by the theory of gas absorption with an irreversible (1,1)-th order reaction between H2S and FeOH2+. From the comparison with our previous data for a H2S-aqueous Fe2(SO4)3 solution system, it was inferred that the species reacting with H2S in the absorption of H2S into aqueous Fe(III) solutions is FeOH2+, independent of the kind of anion to form iron salt, and the reaction kinetics and skeleton of reaction mechanism are identical.
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  • Boris Golman, Kunio Shinohara, Masayoshi Kobayashi
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 507-513
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper analyzes the performance of a membrane reactor, in which the inside porous structure is impregnated with catalysts, under nonisothermal conditions for exothermic complex consecutive reactions. The mathematical model based on an extended Fick’s model, which incorporates both diffusive and convective fluxes inside the membrane pores, was developed in the form of nonlinear differential equations to be solved numerically. The selectivity and yield of the desired intermediate product were calculated as a function of critical dimensionless parameter group’s such as the mass and heat Peclet groups and the Thiele modulus. It was clarified with the calculated and experimental results that the selectivity and yield of intermediates are significantly affected by convective flow inside the macro-pores.
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  • Kunio Shinohara, Boris Golman, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Shigeo Chiba
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 514-519
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
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    A new counter-current type of moving bed reactor was devised for AIN coatings of Si3N4 fine particles in the form of agglomerates by chemical vapor deposition. The influence of process parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, input concentration of gas precursor, and the agglomerate size, was investigated in relation to total quantity of deposited AIN inside the agglomerates. A simplified reactor model was used to analyze the deposition data. As a result, the conversion of Si3N4 particles to their composite with AIN increased with increasing temperature and concentration of AICl3 reaction gas and with decreasing agglomerate size. Thus, it has become possible to produce a sort of surface modified ultra-fine particle at certain coating ratios continuously.
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  • Ali Maghari, Naser Seyed Matin
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 520-525
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since the prediction of the Joule–Thomson inversion curve is known as a sever test of the equation of state, five recent equations of state of van der Waals type are tested for their ability to predict the Joule–Thomson inversion curve. These five equations are: Adachi–Lu–Sugie, Kubic–Martin, Yu–Lu, Twu–Coon–Cunningham, and Deiters equation of state. The investigated equations of state give good prediction of the low-temperature branch of the inversion curve, except for Yu–Lu equation of state. Generally, the high-temperature branch and the peak of the inversion curve proved to be sensitive to the applied equation of state. The results indicate that Deiters equation of state provided the most accurate prediction of the date in the sensitive regions.
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  • Yunliang Wang, Satoru Komori, Myung Kyoon Chung
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 526-534
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    On the basis of a two-equation turbulence model of single-phase flows, two-fluid turbulence models, namely, the k–ε–kp–εp model and the k–ε–kp model are developed to describe turbulent gas-solid two-phase flows. Governing equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and the kinetic energy dissipation rate of the particulate phase are derived from their momentum equations, and unknown terms at two-equation closure level are modeled. The developed models show that the turbulence intensity of the particulate phase is often larger than that of the gaseous phase in the gas-solid flow in a 90° bend, which is quite in accordance with the experimental results. The conventional k–ε–Ap model using a k–ε turbulence model for the carrier fluid and Tchen-Hinze’s formula for the eddy viscosity of the particulate phase, however, shows that the particulate turbulence intensity is always smaller than that of the gaseous phase. Therefore, the two-phase turbulence models developed here are superior to the conventional turbulence model. The turbulence models are also applied to predict the effect of particles on gaseous phase turbulence in the gas-solid flow in a vertical pipe. The predicted results are favorably compared with the available experimental data.
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  • Yasuo Yoshimi, Kiyotaka Sakai
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 535-538
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the present study, cyclic voltammograms obtained with an indium-tin oxide (ITO) anode were compared with those obtained with a platinum anode. The peak currents generated by luminol oxidation at the platinum anode showed convex curves facing upwards with increasing luminol concentration, as the result of the prevention of the oxidation of the platinum electrode by the presence of luminol. With the ITO anode, no current due to electrode oxidation or reduction was detected. The peak current intensity of luminol oxidation was proportional to the luminol concentration, but the peak current was also in a linear relationship with the square root of the scan rate. However, the intercept current was largely deviated from zero. The deviation suggests radial diffusion of luminol at the ITO anode which has a small active point density. In conclusion, the ITO anode is useful for accurate measurement of the rate of luminol oxidation, but radial diffusion of luminol in the vicinity of the ITO surface should be taken into consideration in analysis of luminol oxidation.
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  • Atsushi Ikari, Yasuo Hatate, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Akiyoshi Hamashima
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 539-544
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vapor-liquid equilibria of water-ethanol-l-propanol system containing a minute amount of furfural were measured at atmospheric pressure by use of an Othmer-type still.
    The experimental results are represented by two triangular diagrams against the liquid compositions of the major components (water, ethanol and 1-propanol), in which one diagram shows the vapor compositions of ethanol and 1-propanol, and another diagram shows the equilibrium ratio of the trace component (furfural).
    The curved surface of the equilibrium ratio of the trace component exhibits a bow-shaped downward plane in the water-rich area and shows a ridge in the neighborhood of the water-l-propanol side. In the alcohol (ethanol and 1-propanol)-rich area it exhibits a saddle-shaped face.
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  • Hisashi Miyashita, Masamichi Yoshida, Takeshi Yamane, Tatsuo Nishimura
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 545-549
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
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    An experimental investigation to obtain heat transfer correlation in a Votator type scraped surface heat exchanger with two-blades was performed by an electro-chemical method. Measurements were carried by mass transfer under diffusion control in a ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox electrochemical reaction. The heat transfer correlation was obtained from an analogy of heat and mass transfer. Local heat transfer coefficients on the wall of the outer column of the exchanger was measured by varying the rotational Reynolds number, flow rate of fluid, Prandtl number and equivalent diameter in order to obtain the unity thermal design equation.
    The time averaged local Nusselt number in a high Prandtl number fluid was found to be correlated by the following equation:

    Nu = 1.53Rer0.51Pr0.33 (Do/De)0.44
    (1320 < Pr < 5810, 2.94 < Do/De < 7.2)

    where Rer and De are the blade rotational Reynolds number and equivalent diameter respectively.
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  • Youichi Kawaguchi, Meguru Kaminoyama, Kazuhiko Nishi, Mitsuo Kamiwano
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 550-556
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kneading with a double-blade batch kneader mixer for wet particle systems combines both the convective and dispersive mixing processes. In this paper, we show that the mixing phenomena in the kneader can be analyzed by a mathematical model. Namely, for analysis of this mixing process, we derived an analytical equation considering both convective and dispersive mixing with the following three dimensionless numbers. The first dimensionless number represents the convective mixing of wet particle systems, which is the dimensionless interchange amount between two kneading vessels. The second dimensionless number represents dispersive mixing, which is advanced by compression and the rolling effect between the wall and the rotating blades. The last dimensionless number indicates the contribution of dispersive mixing to the total mixing. To determine each dimensionless number value, we also derived an empirical equation using only the rheological properties of the wet particle systems, namely, plastic viscosity, μ0, and yield stress, τ0.
    We ascertained that the analytical equation proposed in this study can estimate the mixing phenomena with high precision by verifying the estimated values with experimental results for various kinds of wet particle systems in a batch kneader with sigma blades.
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  • Li Fan, Shirun Yan, Kaoru Fujimoto, Kiyotaka Yoshii
    1997 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 557-562
    Published: 1997
    Released: February 27, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Addition of a small amount of middle olefins into a supercritical-phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction medium significantly promoted the carbon-chain growth and greatly enhanced the selectivity of waxy products, with increased CO conversion while successfully suppressing methane and CO2 selectivity. Hydrocarbon products exhibited anti-ASF distribution. The influences of reaction conditions and catalyst pore size, were studied for the supercritical-phase FT reaction where middle olefin was co-fed. This phenomenon was not observed in the gas-phase reaction and liquid-phase reaction conducted in a trickle bed. But liquid-phase reaction conducted in batch type reactor exhibited the same olefin addition effect. The reaction performances mentioned above were analyzed from the viewpoint of mass transfer efficiency of the added olefin in various reaction mediums.
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