JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 8 , Issue 3
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • TOMOSHIGE NITTA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 175-180
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Several practical excess quantities of solid solubilities in mixed solvents have been defined by means of the solute-free volume fractions of the solvent components. Each excess quantity is expressed theoretically by a sum of two terms: the limiting term derived from the assumption of infinite dilution of solute and the correction term of solute concentration. They are given usually by a sum of size, physical, and association terms derived from the generalized FIory-Huggins equation. The theory has been applied to and compared with experimental iodine solubilities in two binary mixtures: benzene-cyclohexane and benzene-carbon tetrachloride.
    The theoretical expressions derived in this paper are applicable to the correlation of gas solubility data measured at constant fugacity of the gas component.
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  • TAKESHI TSUBOKA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 181-187
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new equation is derived explicitly based on an excess energy equation with Wilson''s local volume fractions and the Gibbs-Helmholtz correlation.
    The equation is expressed as the combination of the Wilson equation and a volume ratio term which has been introduced as a result of the derivation. The new equation (modified Wilson equation) contains only two parameters for a binary system, and is applicable to both miscible and partially miscible systems. The equation is readily generalized to multicomponent systems without any additional parameters.
    The wide applicability of the new equation is shown in representing vapor-liquid and liquidliquid equilibria for binary and ternary systems.
    It is also shown that the original Wilson equation is obtained without obscurity by the same derivation as for the new equation.
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  • YASUHIDE NISHI
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 187-191
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    In a system accompanied by hypothetical chemical reaction vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio, Ki, of component i has been expressed by
    logKi=-Ai/T+Bi
    where T is the absolute temperature, Ai is a constant determined by reaction system and component i, and Bi is a constant determined from vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the liquid composition at conversion 0 and/or 1. The object of this paper is to show that the equation mentioned above can also be applied to the system including salt. Following two systems are herein discussed:
    i-propanol-M-propanoI-calcium chloride
    methanol-ethanol-water-calcium chloride
    In these systems Ai implies the salt effect, but its behavior was not definitely observed.
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  • Eizo SADA, TETSUO MORISUE
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 191-195
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    Total pressure for the system of isopropanol and water was measured in a temperature range from 35 to 75°C by using a modified Othmer recirculation still. The vapor-liquid equilibrium was calculated from the total pressure-composition data by using the numerical method of Barker. Simultaneous fitting of the excess Gibbs energy and the excess enthalpy data was successfully done by using the Wilson equation.
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  • Eizo SADA, TETSUO MORISUE, KAZUHISA MIYAHARA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 196-201
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    Effects of LiCI, LiBr and CaCI2 on vapor-liquid equilibrium of isopropanol-water system were measured by the dynamic method at constant temperature and constant solvent composition. From these equilibrium data, the activity coefficients of isopropanol and water and the relative change of chemical potentials of both solvents by salt addition, Δμ, were exactly determined. Linearity of Δμ with respect to salt concentration assumed by Johnson and Furter was observed in low salt concentration region.
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  • KENICHI UNO, Em SARASHINA, YASUHIKO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 201-206
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    The method of Neff and McQuarrie based on the perturbation theory of Barker and Henderson was applied to the calculation of Henry''s constants for 22 systems of normal fluids. In the present study, the second-order term in the perturbation expansion was included to derive an equation for Henry''s constant.
    To evaluate the pair potential, a set of "effective" potential parameters of Kihara potential was determined anew for each substance from the generalized P-V-T relations given by Pitzer et al. These parameters were well correlated with linear functions of acentric factor.
    By use of these "effective" pair potentials, Henry''s constants calculated by the perturbation theory agreed well with experimental values over a wide range of temperature.
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  • SHIRO ITO, KOHEI OGAWA, NOBUO YOSHIDA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 206-209
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    In the impeller stream in a baffled six-flat-blade agitated cylindrical tank, radial, tangential and axial components of mean and fluctuating velocities were measured with a multi-electrode spherical probe based on electrochemical reaction controlled by diffusional mass transfer rate.
    The impeller stream flow field is characterized satisfactorily by turbulent statistical values about the velocity such as turbulence intensities, one-point double and triple correlations, and power spectrum.
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  • TOKURO MIZUSHINA, TOSHIRO MARUYAMA, HIDEO HIRASAWA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 210-216
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An experimental investigation was performed to study the dynamic process of bursting in pulsating turbulent flow. Particular emphasis is placed on the details of the process of turbulence generation and its propagation in the radial direction.
    The results show that the resonance in pulsating flow affects only the generation of turbulence, and that another important factor which characterizes the dynamic behaviour of turbulence is the coherency of propagation of generated turbulence: changing its frequency, the generated turbulence propagates to the centre-line of the tube with a unique propagation time which scales on the wall parameters. The propagation time in which the turbulence propagates from the position of origin to the centre-line agrees well with the mean burst period.
    This fact suggests that the entire cycle of the bursting phenomenon is characterized by the propagation of generated turbulence in the radial direction and that the bulk parameter dependence of burst period is attributable to the pipe radius.
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  • TOKURO MIZUSHINA, FUMIMARU OGINO, SHUNJI TAKESHITA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 217-223
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted on a fully developed turbulent pipe flow with uniform fluid injection or suction through the wall.
    A simple model was used to analyze the effect of injection or suction on the eddy diffusivity of momentum, friction factor and pressure gradient. The model predicts that both the normalized eddy diffusivity and local friction factor are linear functions of m/(-dp*/dx*), that is),
    εM/vRe(-dp*/dx*)=F1(y/R)•m/(-dp*/dx*)+F2(y/R)
    f(-dp*/dx*)=1/2+4m/(-dp*/dx*)
    and that dp*/dx*=fn (m). Functions F1(y/R), F2(y/R) and fn(m) were determined by experiment.
    The experimental runs were executed at Re=15, 200-95, 300 with wall flux ratio m=vW/<u>=-0.0042-0.00847.
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  • RYUZO ITO, YUSHI HIRATA, YOSHIRO INOUE
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 223-227
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    Local mass transfer rates from a vertical flat plate are measured in the region of combined convective flow. The electrochemical method, i. e., cathodic reduction in a solution of K4Fe (CN)6-K3Fe(CN)6-NaOH, is applied to mass transfer measurements. The experiments cover a wide range of the combined flow parameter Grx/Rex2 and high Schmidt number of approximately 2000. Local Sherwood number in combined flow regime is derived by the integral method and correlated by the parameter Grx1/2/RexSc1/2 in the range 0.73 <Sc< 2000.
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  • TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI, KOZO MATSUMOTO, TAKASHI YOSHIDA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 228-232
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    The limiting Sherwood number between particles and fluid in the low Péclet number region was determined experimentally for liquid-phase mass transfer in packed beds. Experimental results revealed a very large limiting value of Shho=7.4 (or Shpo = 16.7 at εf=0.40), where Shho and Shpo are the Sherwood numbers based on hydraulic diameter and particle diameter, respectively, and εf is the void fraction of the beds. Accuracy of measurement was increased by applying a pulse response method to determine the film coefficients in packed beds which accompanied rapid irreversible neutralization reaction. Also, a special device was utilized to send a plane impulse of the tracer liquor.
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  • MAKOTO HARADA, TZUTOMU IMAMURA, KENJI FUJIYOSH, WATARU EGUCHI
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 233-238
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The interfacial processes between aqueous and organic phases for mass transfer of carboxylic acids were clarified using the cylindrical-lens schlieren apparatus. There existed no detectable interfacial resistance for acetic acid as a solute, while for n-valeric acid, interfacial resistance played an important role in the mass transfer. For the transfer of carboxylic acids, an equilibrium was attained between the concentration in the aqueous phase next to the interface and that at the interface. The process between organic phase and the interface was the rate-determining step among the processes associated with the interface. The interfacial resistance was found to originate from the resolvation process and the entropy effect of the solute transferring from the interface to the organic phase, the latter being affected by the number of CH2 groups in the solute molecule.
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  • HIROZUMI IZAWA, HAKUAI INOUE
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 239-242
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    It is shown that when a set of simultaneous ordinary differential equations represents the mass balances in a fluidized bed reactor as a boundary value problem and the reaction rate has the maximum with respect to the concentration of the reactant, there are cases in which more than one set of solutions for them exist.
    Investigations are made into the behavior of solutions with changes of a few operating parameters and into the concentration stability in an isothermal condition.
    These results make it clear that the conditions under which the mass balance equations of a fluidized bed reactor have plural solutions are estimated from the character of the corresponding backmix reactor, and that bubble diameter and height of fluidization have large effects on the concentration stability of the reactor.
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  • SHINJI NAGATA, MASABUMI NISHIKAWA, AKIRA INOUE, YUKIMICHI OKAMOTO
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 243-248
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
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    Time-mean liquid velocity, RMS velocity, various scales of turbulence, and energy dissipation rate in non-baffled mixing vessel are measured. As the lateral RMS velocity is one-third to one-fourth the longitudinal RMS velocity, liquid in the vessel is in the non-isotropic turbulence field. However, the theory of local isotropy of Kolmogoroff can be applied because existence of the inertial subrange is observed. As the integrated value of local energy dissipation rate agrees with the power per unit mass of liquid from the impeller, almost all energy from the impeller is viscous dissipated in eddies of micro scale. At low impeller speed, there exist poorly turbulent portions at parts distant from the impeller or in motion of micro scale eddies in the high frequency range in spite of the fact that Re number indicates full turbulence. Turbulent diffusivities in radial direction are from 0.1 to 10 cm2/sec in this experiment and are almost proportional to impeller speed. Turbulent diffusivities in tangential direction are three to five times larger than those of radial or axial diffusivities and mixing between cylindrically rotating zone and outer quasi-free vortex zone is poor.
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  • SHINOBU TAKEUCH, TOMOSHIGE NITTA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 248-250
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • HIDEO SHINAGAWA, MASAKI OTA, AND YUJI KAWAMURA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 251-252
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • HIROSHI TAKEUCHI, MICHIHIKO FUJINE, TETSUSHI SATO, KAKUSABURO ONDA
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 252-253
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • MIKIO KAWAGOE, KATSUMI NAKAO, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1975 Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages 254-256
    Published: June 30, 1975
    Released: March 28, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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