JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 11 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROSHI SUGI, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 167-172
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data are obtained for the two ternary systems w-hexane-ethanolacetonitrile at 40°C and water-acetonitrile-ethyl acetate at 60°C. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the two miscible binaries of each ternary system are also determined.
    The measured ternary liquid-liquid equilibria are compared with those predicted from the constituent binary data alone by use of various activity coefficient equations.
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  • HIDEKI TSUGE, SHIN-ICHI HIBINO
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 173-178
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An improved two-stage model is proposed to predict bubble volume and to explain the phenomena of bubble formation when bubbles are formed from a submerged single orifice accompanied by pressure fluctuations in a gas chamber.
    The following conclusions are reached by comparing the calculated results based on the proposed model with the experimental results:
    (1) The calculated bubble volumes agree well with the experimental results over a wide range of experimental conditions.
    (2) The change of bubble volume with bubbling time and the phenomena of pressure fluctuations in the gas chamber are well described by the model.
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  • TAKEICHIRO TAKAMATSU, KENJI KAWACHI
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 179-184
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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    In this paper, it is shown what influences remain in a controlled system if the decoupling controller is designed by using incomplete state variable feedback. A sufficient condition for the existence of a decoupling controller based on the incomplete state variable feedback is derived by using the special structure of the model.
    It is also shown for a binary distillation column that only five state variables (1st, 2nd, 3rd, (n-l)-th, n-th) need be fed back for design of a decoupling controller.
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  • SAKUHEI OHMURA, SUSUMU KA SAHARA
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 185-193
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A distillation calculation method has been developed whereby the theoretical tray model of the tray-by-tray method is applied to sections subject to large fluctuations in vapor/liquid loads and temperatures, and the short-cut model (which makes use of effective stripping factors) to sections subject to small changes of these variables. By applying a combination of both models, calculations of an accuracy approaching that of the tray-by-tray method is attainable without any variation in computer running time or memory capacity, irrespective of increase in the number of trays. Further, in addition to liquid loads and temperatures, the required number of trays can be determined by taking the number of trays within the short-cut model as variables.
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  • KAZUO KONDO, SEIJI TAKAHASHI, TERUO TSUNEYUKI, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 193-197
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Novel separation technique using liquid surfactant membranes containing mobile carrier has recently attracted practical interest through individual ion recovery from brines and metallurgical wastes. In this paper, as a basic study of the selective separation and concentration of metal ion using liquid surfactant membranes, the extraction of copper with benzoylacetone was carried out using a stirred transfer cell. The effect of chelating complex formation on extraction rate was examined experimentally and theoretically. As a result, it became clear that the experimental results were explained by a diffusion model accompanied by the formation of chelating complex. In addition, the rate constant of complex formation and the mass transfer coefficient of benzoylacetone into aqueous phase were obtained.
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  • TERUO TSUNEYUKI, KAZUO KONDO, YOSHINOBU KAWANO, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 198-202
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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    Authors indicated previously that the interfacial rate process was significant in low concentration range of long-chain alkylamine for the extraction of hydrochloric acid in a horizontal rectangular channel contactor. This paper is concerned with the effects of interfacial rate process for the same extraction system in a stirred transfer cell.
    It was found from the analysis of the initial rate of extraction that the interfacial rate process was significant in the range of concentration of long-chain alkylamine lower than 0.1mol/l, while in the range of concentration of the amine higher than 0.2mol/l the interfacial rate process was assumed to be an instantaneous irreversible reaction.
    These experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion model, taking account of the interfacial rate process expressed by (1, 2) order irreversible reaction with respect to the interfacial concentrations of hydrochloric acid and long-chain alkylamine.
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  • AZHAR H. BOKHARI, MAKOTO HARADA, MIKIYOSHI ARAKI, WATARU EGUCHI
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 203-208
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Distribution of uranyl chloride between amine solution in benzene and aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid was clarified at 25°C over a wide range of U(VI)-loading to the amine. Distribution of uranyl chloride at several concentrations of the acid in aqueous phase was reduced to a single relation which was decided by the amine concentration in the organic phase. Employing this fact, the distribution equilibrium over a wide range of U(VI)-loading was obtained and the concentration of amine free from uranyl chloride was explicitly determined by use of the equilibrium without any assumptions for the associated form of uranyl-amine complexes. The extraction mechanism of uranyl chloride was found to be expressed as follows, by use of the above method:
    UO++2+2Cl-+4R3NHC1H2O(R3NHCl)4UO2Cl2H2O +3H2O
    UO++2+2Cl-+2R3NHCIH2O(R3NHCl)2UO2Cl2+2H2O
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  • MORIO OKAZAKI, HAJIME TAMON, RYOZO TOEI
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 209-215
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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    A new method is proposed to predict adsorption equilibria of mixtures of solvent and water vapor on activated carbon. It is based on evaluating the amounts of solvent and water in the capillary condensed phase in the fine pores and in the ordinary adsorbed phase in the coarse pores, respectively. Predicted results are compared with experimental ones on two kinds of activated carbons having different pore-size distributions for water-soluble solvents (methanol and acetone) and water-insoluble solvents (benzene and toluene), respectively. Both results agree fairly well.
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  • KAZUO TAKEUCHI, TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI, YUZO URAGUCHI
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 216-220
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The chromatographic moving-bed reactor is a new device in which catalytic reaction and separation by adsorption take place simultaneously. In this paper, new ways of utilization of the device are investigated to make clear that the following two objects are practicable: (1) the selectivity of the intermediate products in first-order consecutive reactions can be improved compared with that in fixed-bed reactors, and (2) the conversion of products in reversible reactions can exceed the conversion at chemical equilibrium. The para-xylene production process seems to correspond to the second situation.
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  • TAKEICHIRO TAKAMATSU, YOSHIAKI SHIMIZU
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 221-226
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Piece-wise constant control policy is studied based on sensitivity analysis with a discontinuous function and an algorithm for solving optimal control problems in a practical manner is developed.
    Compared with other numerical methods (simplex, Rosenbrock''s and the conjugate gradient method), both effectiveness of the algorithm and technical feasibility of the decision obtained are examined by two examples of chemical reaction processes.
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  • SUSUMU FUKUSHIMA, ATSUO UYAMA, SHINOBU KATAYAMA
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 227-233
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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    On absorption of pure oxygen gas through a free surface into d-glucose solution with low- and high-activity enzymes consisting of glucose oxidase and catalase or with these deactivated enzymes, the absorption rate NA and oxygen concentration in the bulk of liquid, Ao, were measured in a batch stirred tank (BST). Also, oxygen absorption rates for a solution consisting of d-glucose, active enzymes and sulfate were measured in the Warburg apparatus (WA).
    In the BST, the liquid-phase mass-transfer coefficient without chemical reaction, k*l, increases according to deactivated enzymes. For high content of low-activity enzymes, the observed values of NA and Ao are in good agreement with predicted values on the basis of chemical absorption theory. For high-activity enzymes, the rate equation of complex reaction is obtained from analysis of observed data. It was also clarified that the real value of enzyme activity in Sarett units, EUreal, is obtained from the Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots of oxygen absorption rate per unit liquid volume per unit mass of enzyme, NA/(VlCEt), and Ao, where the overall rate is controlled by chemical reaction in the bulk of liquid.
    In the WA, the values of interfacial area al and k*lal were obtained from oxygen absorption into a solution consisting of d-glucose, sulfite and sulfate with and without cobaltous chloride catalyst at pH 8. For low- and high-activity enzymes, the respective reaction-rate constant and Michaelis constant given from analysis of observed values of NA agree well with those given in the BST. It was also proved that without observed values of Ao the EUreal for both enzymes are obtained from the LB plots of NA/(VlCEt), and (1-β*), where β* is the modified reaction coefficient. Thus, the EUreal for low- and high-activity enzymes coincide with those in the BST.
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  • KENJI KUBO, TOSHIRO ARATANI, AKIRA MISHIMA, TAKEO YANO
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 234-236
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • HARUO HIKITA, SATORU ASAI, TADASHI TSUJI
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 236-238
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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  • HIROMITSU SHIBUYA, KUNITARO KAWAZOE
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 239-241
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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  • SUSUMU FUKUSHIMA, KATSUHIKO KUSAKA
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 241-244
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
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  • TAKEICHIRO TAKAMATSU, YOSHIAKI SHIMIZU
    1978 Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages 244-247
    Published: June 20, 1978
    Released: March 31, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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