JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 1 , Issue 2
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • RUITEN OUYANG, DONALD F. OTHMER
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 99-104
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In a liquid mixture A-B, the fractions of the contact between the like molecules and that between the unlike molecules to the total contact are represented by XA2, XB2, and XAXB, XBXA respectively, where x denotes the mole fraction.
    In vapor-liquid equilibrium, at the part of XA2, XB2, in the liquid phase exert the vapor pressures corresponding to their pure liquids A and B, while at the part of XAXB, XBXA the different vapor pressure from their pure state appears. Thus, the total pressure is shown to be the arithmetic sum of the respective vapor pressures and the equations for the prediction of the vapor composition based on the partial fraction give fairly good agreement with the data shown in the literatures.
    Other physical properties than vapor pressure in the liquid mixture also endorse the coexistence of "pure state" and "mixed state".
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  • KOICHIRO NAKANISHI
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 104-109
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A new vapor pressure equation, which is similar in form to the Antoine equation and which contains three vapor pressure parameters, the effective carbon number (N), the polar number (S) and an additional parameter (T), proposed in the previous report, is presented The coefficients in this equation were determined so as to give best fit to the vapor pressure of n-butane to n-octane at low and medium pressure ranges. But it is proved to be useful for reproducing the vapor pressure data of various liquids including some cryogenic liquids at low and medium pressure ranges. The application of this equation to the prediction of the variation of azeotrope with pressure in binary solutions is discussed.
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  • GEN-ICHI KAMINISHI, YASUHIKO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO, SIRO MAEDA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 109-116
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Vapor-liquid equilibria containing carbon dioxide: CO2-CO, CO2-Ar, CO2-CH4 and CO2-H2-CO were measured by static method at -50°C to 20°C and up to 200 atm. By using these data and the data available in literature, the extent of usefulness of the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation (hereafter abbreviated as BWR equation) and the treatment of Leland et al. were studied. The BWR equation correctly predicted the vapor-liquid equilibria of inorganic mixtures except in the critical region, while the treatment of Leland et al. was insufficient.
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  • MOTOYOSHI HASHITANI, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 116-119
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have been obtained for systems methanol-methyï acetate, ethanolethyl acetate and n-butanol-n-butyl acetate with calcium chloride at atmospheric pressure. Calcium chloride was added up to the saturated concentration. By adding salt, the increase of relative volatility of acetic ester was observed and the azeotropic composition shifted to the higher acetic ester composition in all systems. The solubilities of calcium chloride in these boiling alcohol-acetic ester solutions were shown in figures. It is suggested that the salt effect of calcium chloride may be utilized effectively for the separation of these alcohol-acetic ester mixtures.
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  • NOBUO MITSUISHI, OSAMU MIYATAKE, MITSURU YANAGIDA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 120-124
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Theoretical and experimental studies were performed on heat transfer to fluids with variable physical properties, fully developed laminar flow in vertical tubes, under the condition of constant wall heat flux.
    In the course of analysis the temperature dependence of viscosity and density was taken into account.
    The final results were envisioned as the relation between local Nusselt number and local Graetz number, having ε and Gr0/64Re0 as parameters.
    Experimental data were obtained in the above system with water or aqueous solutions of cane sugar, and the analytical solutions are in a fairly good agreement with the above experimental data.
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  • RYOZO TOEI, MORIO OKAZAKI, AKIRA URAGAMI, YUJI TAKAKI
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 125-131
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A theoretical analysis of mass transfer under a reduced pressure, especially the transition regime was made on the basis of the gas kinetic theory. Maxwell moment method utilizing the two-sided Maxwellian distribution function proposed by Lees et al. was applied to the mass transfer between two concentric spheres, and the accomodation coefficient was taken into account. The analytical solution with the evaluated accomodation coefficient O.9 agreed well with the experimental results of sublimation of naphthalene performed by the authors.
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  • KENJI HASHIMOTO, MASAAKI TERAMOTO, TOSHIO NAGAYASU, SHINJI NAGATA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 132-138
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The theoretical analysis on the selectivity of gas-liquid reaction is developed by taking into account the role of mass transfer based on the film theory. The reaction scheme considered is represented as follows: (B(liq.) +A(gas)) → R(liq.), (R(liq.) +A(gas))→S(/iq.). The rate of conversion and the relation between the yield of the intermediate product and the conversion are presented for a semibatch reactor and a continuous stirred tank reactor. It is shown that various reaction conditions such as the ratio of the rate of reaction to that of mass transfer, and the concentration of gas and liquid components have considerable effects on the selectivity.
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  • SHIGEAKI KASAOKA, YUSAKU SAKATA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 138-142
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The catalytic effectiveness factors with variable rate constants and diffusivities were theoretically studied.
    In this work, the fundamental analysis was undertaken for an isothermal first order reaction on the assumption of linear or hyperbolic rate constant-diffusivity distributions with depth of a flat plate catalyst.
    The effectiveness factors were correlated as a function of generalized Thiele modulus taking account of the distribution functions, or in terms of apparent rate parameter, ratio of overall rate to rate on external surface, and respective arithmetic mean value of rate constant-diffusivity.
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  • HIROSHI KOMIYAMA, HAKUAI INOUE
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 142-148
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Consecutive hydrogenation of acetylene with n-ckel catalyst was carried out in order to investigate the selectivity of the intermediate product of a consecutive reaction. Six groups of catalysts with different diameters were prepared and the selectivity was measured for each catalyst group. The results showed the similar trend to the theory proposed by Wheeler10), but considerable discrepancy was found between the measured selectivity and the theoretical one which was predicted by such a simple hypothesis as linear kinetics and a uniform poremodel for a catalyst.
    More precise investigation by the authors, that is, the experimental runs about the kinetics of this reaction, the computational analysis of the selectivity based upon these observed kinetics and the microscopic observation of the catalyst, clarified that the experimental data on the obtained selectivity coincided well with the micro-macro pore model by the consecutive reaction of Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate form.
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  • MAKOTO HARADA, KATSUJI TANAKA, WATARU EGUCHI, SHINJI NAGATA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 148-152
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Homogeneous polymerization of styrene was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor, and it was made clear that special attention should be paid to the segregation of reaction mixture in the reactor for the reactor design of polymerization. Both the effect of micro-mixing on the volume efficiency of reactor and on the properties of polymer and the type of impeller to bring the reaction field homogeneous were discussed.
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  • KATSUAKI IMAFUKU, TONG-YEN WANG, KOZO KOIDE, HIROSHI KUBOTA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 153-158
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The behavior of suspended solid particles in the bubble column was experimentally studied. The critical gas velocity for complete suspension of solid particles is affected by liquid flow near the gas distributor. The liquid flow is governed by the shape of the bottom of the column and the position of the gas distributor. On the other hand, gas bubbles rising through the column develop easily to large bubbles by the existence of a small amount of suspended solid particles, and therefore the gas holdup and the concentration distribution of the particles do not depend on the gas distributor and the shape of the bottom of the column. The dispersion coefficient of solid particles has the same value with that of liquid within the column without solid particles. The settling velocity of solid particles in the bubble column was correlated with the terminal velocity of those particles in stagnant liquid.
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  • YUZO AOYAMA, KATSUNORI OGUSHI, KOZO KOIDE, HIROSHI KUBOTA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 158-163
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    In concurrent bubble columns the longitudinal mass and thermal dispersion coefficients were determined. The both coefficients agreed well with each other. This shows that the mechanism of the thermal dispersion in the bubble column is also governed by liquid mixing.
    The dispersion coefficient El, is correlated with experimental conditions in three regions, which are classified by the value of slip velocity of gas bubbles, us. At us>25cm/sec, El obtained in columns of the same diameter is related apparently only on the superficial gas velocity in the column, but it is independent on the liquid property and the size of gas bubbles. El is also proportional to one and a half powers of the column diameter. At us<20cm/sec, El is represented by a plot of Pé vs. ReP, where the average bubble diameter is taken as the characteristic length. At 20 > us > 25cm/sec, no correlation for El was obtained.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, KEISHI GOTOH, KUNIHISA OSASA, ISAO USAMI
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 164-167
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Although N. Brook has mentioned in his research on flow measurements of participate solid-liquid mixtures that the flow in vertical pipes should be modified by slip between the particles and the water, the slip effect has not been taken into account.
    In this paper, theoretical and experimental methods are presented for measuring the flow rate of particulate solids in solid-liquid mixtures in view of the slip velocity by using vertical connected pipes of two different diameters, it is shown that the slip velocity can be calculated by measuring the difference between the transport concentrations of solids in two pipes resulted from the difference in the particle velocities in each pipe. The velocity of liquid is measured by an electro-magnetic flow meter and the flow rate of particulate solids is calculated theoretically. Reasonable coincidence between theories and experiments are reported.
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  • SHIN-ICHI MAKISHIMA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 168-174
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The power requirements for agitating the beds of solid particles have been investigated by a proposed model based upon the foundation capacity theory. The ratio of inertia force to shearing stress, NM, and the power number, NP, both non-dimensional terms, have been found very important for the estimation of power requirements for agitating solid beds. They can be correlated by the following equation;
    NP = K1NM-1 + K2
    which is quite similar to those for agitating liquid in tanks. The values of the above constants have been calculated from the experimental data as K1 = 20 and K2 = 50 over the wide ranges of tank diameters, shapes of blades, rotational speeds, and various kinds of solid particles.
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  • SHIN-ICHI MAKISHIMA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 175-180
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The relation between Np and NM in the previous paper has been extended further to the power characteristics for agitating solid beds with multiple blades of various pitches and when accompanied with upward streams of gas through the beds. By using the correction factor, k, the modified nondimensional numbers in the following terms;
    ??
    ??
    can also be correlated by the same equation in the previous paper as follows,
    NP = 20NM-1 + 50
    The gas flow rate, ump, which gives the minimum total power requirement for the upward gas flow and the mechanical agitation has been calculated mathematically and ensured experimentally.
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  • TAKEHIKO FURUSAWA, HAJIME NISHIMURA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 180-183
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TOKUJI IIJIMA, TSUNEO KUZUOKA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 183-184
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    In this paper, distillation performance for the vertical net packings is described. Experimental results show that the packed column with the packings can be operated without flooding in the wide range of vapor flow rate. The H. T. U. values of the packings are approximately in the range of 0.3-0.5m and the packings give more excellent performance than the vertical cloth packings. The various factors which have influence on distillation performances of these packings have been discussed.
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  • YOSHIRO MORI, KOZO NAKAMURA
    1968 Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 185-186
    Published: August 15, 1968
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The photographs of particle movement were taken in a two-dimensional fluidized bed and statistically analyzed. The circulation of the solid phase was proved to exist from the mean particle velocity and the scale of movement concerning space and time was obtained from the autocorrelation coefficient of particle velocity. These informations will be available for simulating the solid mixing in fluidized beds.
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