JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 9 , Issue 5
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • S. GOVINDASWAMY, AN. ANDIAPPAN, SM. LAKSHMANAN
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 345-349
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vapour-liquid equilibrium data at 760 mmHg pressure for the binary systems n-hexane-isopropanol and benzene-isopropanol, and the ternary system n-hexane-benzene-isopropanol, are presented. The binary data were tested for thermodynamic consistency by Herington''s test and were correlated through the Wilson and NRTL equations. The ternary data were also fitted through the Wilson and NRTL equations.
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  • NOEL MIDOUX, MICHEL FAVIER, JEAN-CLAUDE CHARPENTIER
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 350-356
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flow patterns, pressure loss and liquid holdup for gas-liquid concurrent downflow have been studied in glass beds and in cylindrical and spherical Co/Mo/AI2O3 catalyst packings with foaming and nonfoaming liquids. The different flow patterns encountered in this study are gathered in a flow pattern diagram. Correlations of pressure loss and liquid holdup are proposed in terms of the single-phase friction loss or frictional energy for the liquid and the gas when each flows alone in the bed. The types of correlation depend on the tendency of the fluid to foam or not.
    A comparison of the flow diagram and the pressure drop and holdup correlation of this work with those of other published studies is also presented.
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  • HARUO HIKITA, KOSAKU ISHIMI
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 357-362
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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    The flow behaviour of gas and liquid in wetted-wall columns was studied theoretically and experimentally for the cases of cocurrent and countercurrent laminar flow of both fluids. Analytical solutions were obtained for the velocity profiles of gas and liquid and the frictional pressure drop for the gas stream. Frictional pressure drops for the gas stream were measured for the air-water system and the air-glycerol solution system. Experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
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  • HARUO HIKITA, KOSAKU ISHIMI
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 362-367
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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    The effect of the gas and liquid flow rates on the mass transfer rate in laminar gas streams in wetted-wall columns with cocurrent gas-liquid flow was studied. An analytical solution was obtained for the average gas-phase Sherwood number as a function of the gas-phase Graetz number and the dimensionless interfacial gas velocity. Experiments were carried out on the absorption of ammonia into sulfuric acid solution and of methanol vapor into water, using three columns of different dimensions. The agreement between the experimental and the predicted effects of both gas and liquid flow rates on the gas-phase mass transfer rate was found to be fairly good.
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  • KAZUNORI WATANABE, TSUYOSHI MUNAKATA
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 367-372
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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    Wire-coiled glass tubes were examined as wetted-wall surfaces in vacuum distillation. The performance data obtained show that these walls are advantageously of great use in the distillation of both surface tension positive and negative systems and, in addition, for where the reflux flow rate is very low. It is noted that the desired pitch lengths of coil are 1.0 cm or less for the positive system and 0.25 cm or less for the negative one, respectively, and that the diameter of the coil wire and the number of helical threads not more than 2 have practically no effect on the column performance.
    The continuous capillary and wettability of liquid on the wall surface may play a major role toward the achievement of effective distillation, not only in surface tension positive system but also in negative system.
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  • YOSHIO HARANO, KENJI NAKANO, MINORU SAITO, TATSUYA IMOTO
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 373-377
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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    A homogeneous nucleation rate equation (1) was derived theoretically, which is in the same form as that often applied in engineering treatment.
    J=k1Sm (1)
    where S is supersaturated ratio, m is the number of solutes in a critical nucleus, and it is not constant, but depends on S and temperature.
    In order to examine the validity of Eq. (1), the nucleation of KC1O3 from its supersaturated aqueous solution was carried out. The nucleation rate was measured in terms of the waiting time, by using a differential scanning calorimeter. The values of the nucleation parameters (m and radius and specific surface energy of a critical nucleus) obtained on the basis of Eq. (1) were of reasonable order of magnitude and were in fair agreement with those obtained by Preckshot''s method. As a result, it was concluded that Eq. (1) is adequate for the homogeneous nucleation rate.
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  • KEIICHI KATO, ISSEI NAKAMORI
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 378-383
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Foam separation experiments were carried out in SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate)-MgCl2 solution system. For the surface excess of metallic ion, a model was derived on the basis of the Gouy-Chapman theory of the diffuse double layer in the same way as that by Rubin et al. In the model, the contribution of anions to the total charge density was taken into account between the distances of closest approach of two different cations. To obtain the values of surface excess of magnesium, ΓMg2+, the present model was numerically solved by introducing the experimental values of surface excess of DBS- (dodecylbenzene sulphonate ion), ΓDBS-, and by introducing the calculated values of TDBS-, respectively. Below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), there was a reasonably good agreement between these calculated values of ΓMg2+ and experimental ones. It was also indicated that the present model having the calculated ΓDBS- is equivalent to the Langmuir equation far below the CMC.
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, HIROYUKI YOSHIDA
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 383-387
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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    The effect of an electric field on the breakthrough curve of a packed bed in equal valence ion exchange was studied under liquid phase diffusion control. The derived theoretical equations were solved numerically for various values of diffusivity ratio a and equilibrium constant K. The breakthrough curves of R-H-NaCl and R-Na-HCl systems were measured for various Re'' and bed heights. The results showed that the smaller the value of K is, the larger the effect of the electric field on the breakthrough curve is. Particularly, the effect is larger for a < 1 than a > 1. Further, when a>l and K>1, the diffusivity of the slower ion can be approximately used to predict the breakthrough curve, breakthrough time and Utilization, within an error of 30%.
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  • KENJI HASHIMOTO, KOUICHI MIURA
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 388-392
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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    An improved and simplified method to design fixed-bed adsorbers is developed under the assumption of a constant pattern of concentration distribution for the Freundlich isotherm systems. The intraparticle mass transfer rate is approximated by a modified linear-driving-force expression. The diagrams showing three parameters, which are necessary to estimate the break time, are presented and the procedures for predicting the break time and the breakthrough curve are presented.
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  • KOEI KAWAKAMI, SHIGETSUGU URA, KOICHIRO KUSUNOKI
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 392-396
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The reaction characteristics of a catalyst pellet is examined in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of styrene in a stirred basket reactor. The catalyst used is a 0.5 % Pt-Al2O3 cylindrical pellet. The intrinsic kinetic expression of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood form is fashioned from the rate measurements in a stirred slurry reactor in which the finely crushed pellets are suspended. With the catalyst pellets the pore diffusion of hydrogen is observed to be significant.
    The effectiveness factor of the catalyst pellet is computed on the basis of a simplified theoretical model. The connection between the catalytic effectiveness factors obtained experimentally and theoretically makes it possible to estimate the effective diffusivity of hydrogen and the tortuosity factor of the catalyst pellet. The tortuosities ranging from 2.5 to 3.2, secured at the three temperature levels, are shown to be reasonable values for the pore diffusion within a liquid filled catalyst.
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  • HIROSHI YUKAWA, KAZUMASA KOBAYASHI, YUTAKA TSUKUF, SHIGERU YAMANO, MIN ...
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 396-401
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Filtration under constant D. C. electric field with constant hydraulic pressure, what is termed electrokinetic filtration, was discussed in this paper. Under these conditions it is considered that electrophoresis occurs in the slurry and causes less cake formation, and that electroosmosis occurs at the same time in the filter cake. Therefore, the flow rate of electrokinetic filtration is increased in comparison to filtration at the same hydraulic pressure. An equation taking account of both effects is presented. Experimental investigation of the characteristics of electrokinetic filtration is performed according to the theoretical equation. As a result, the flow rate of filtration is significantly increased for calcium carbonate slurry and white clay slurry. For instance, at the electric field of 30 volt/cm under hydraulic pressure of 163.2 G/cm2, Ruth''s filtration coefficient for calcium carbonate slurry was about 9.4 times as large as that of the filtration at the same hydraulic pressure, and Ruth''s coefficient for white clay slurry was about 15 times at 12volt/cm and 163.2 G/cm2. It is confirmed that the equation of electrokinetic filtration proposed in this paper is practically available.
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  • HIROSHI YUKAWA, HIROSHI YOSHIDA, KAZUMASA KOBAYASHI, MASARU HAKODA
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 402-407
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is possible to apply electroosmosis to dewatering of sludge.
    In this paper, the mechanism of electroosmotic dewatering of compressible sludge under condition of constant electric current was discussed, based on the model of electroosmotic flow through the particle packed bed, and the effects of the operating conditions on the rate of electroosmotic dewatering and the electric power consumption were theoretically analysed. The equations obtained theoretically were confirmed experimentally under condition of constant electric current with the compressible sludges such as white clay, magnesium hydroxide and bentonite. Theoretical equations were available for the design of electroosmotic dewatering apparatus. The electroosmotic dewatering was particularly effective for gelatinous sludges.
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  • A. B. PONTER, S. VIJAYAN
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 408-409
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Eizo SADA, TAKAAKI AMENO, MASAYUKI KONDO
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 409-410
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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  • TAKAO KOKUGAN, HITOSHI YOSHIDA, MASARU SHIMIZU
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 411-413
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KYOJI SATO, MASARU ISHIDA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 414-416
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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  • YOSHIO NAKANO, MASARU ISHIDA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 416-418
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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  • MITSUYASU HIRANUMA
    1976 Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 418-419
    Published: October 31, 1976
    Released: March 29, 2006
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