JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 20 , Issue 6
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • KAZUHISA OHTAGUCHI, AKIO NASU, Kozo KOIDE, ICHIRO INOUE
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 557-562
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of size distribution of lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus on its growth were studied empirically by measuring time courses of population density, volume distribution function and concentrations of cell mass, substrate and acid in batch cultures. The size distribution function normalized with the average size and population density was preserved exclusively in the logarithmic phase and the stationary phase of cell mass growth. Statistical analysis further detailed the growth kinetics of L. bulgaricus, and the potentiality of size structure on population dynamics was incorporated into empirical equations.
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  • YOSHIMITSU UEMURA, YASUO HATATE, ATSUSHI IKARI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 563-568
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A characterization study was undertaken with eighteen kinds of nickel/alumina impregnated catalysts prepared by using three nickel compounds (nickel (II) acetylacetonate, nickel (II) acetate and nickel (II) chloride) as the nickel source material and by applying two impregnation methods (single and multiple). The catalysts prepared by using nickel (II) acetylacetonate and nickel (II) acetate showed a similar distribution and average of nickel particle diameters regardless of nickel source material or impregnation method. The distribution broadening and the average increased with increasing nickel content for the catalysts prepared by using nickel (II) chloride. The rate of benzene hydrogenation was proportional to the nickel surface area regardless of nickel source material or impregnation method.
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  • YASUO HATATE, SHUICHI TAJIRI, TAKANORI FUJITA, TAKASHI FUKUMOTO, ATSUS ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 568-574
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Heat transfer characteristics between the inner tube wall and fluid of air-water-fine glass spheres three-phase vertical upflow were investigated using three kinds of glass spheres and two tubes under the following operating conditions:
    gas velocity (UG) = 80 - 900cm/s, slurry velocity (UL) = 30- 160cm/s, and solid particles concentration in slurry (CS) = 5 - 54 wt % for DT = 15-mm tube; and UG = 15 - 305 cm/s, UL = 8 - 62 cm/s, and CS = 0.2 - 57 wt % for DT = 27-mm tube.
    The following results were obtained.
    1) The heat transfer coefficients of three-phase vertical upflow exhibit larger values than those of gas-liquid twophase vertical upflow in the range of 0-40 wt % solid concentration.
    2) Monotonous small increases of the heat transfer coefficient with increase of both gas and slurry velocities were observed over the whole range of experimental conditions.
    3) A new empirical correlation of heat transfer coefficient was proposed to fit all data obtained in this work within 30%.
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  • KUNIO KATO, YUJI OKUBO, TAKAYUKI TAKARADA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 574-579
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    The reaction characteristics (the reactant conversion and the yield of the intermediate product) of a parallel consecutive reaction in a fluidized bed were analyzed on the basis of the "Bubble Assemblage Model." The effects of rate constants, particle size and bed diameter upon the reaction characteristics were investigated theoretically. When the rate constants and the size of particles were small, the reaction characteristics for a fluidized-bed reactor closely approached those for a plug-flow reactor and scale-up of the fluidized bed reactor became easy.
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  • SHIGEKI TOYAMA, TSUTOMU ARAGAKI, HASSAN MOHAMED SALAH, KAZUNORI MURASE
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 579-584
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The simultaneous phenomena of heat and mass transfer from water flowing through a fibrous sheet attached below the upper boundary of an inclined enclosure have been studied as a fundamental work for developing a new type of solar still.
    Experimental work was carried out with two kinds of fibres, two angles of inclination, and different feed rates at various heat inputs.
    The maximum temperature at the upper wall of the enclosure increased linearly with applied heat flux and was almost independent of the feed rate and the kind of fibre.
    Experiments with high-permeability sheet showed an increase in evaporation rate of about 16 % at a 10-degree angle and 30 % at a 36-degree angle. Thermal convection in the enclosure became evident at a low feed rate and declined with increase in feed rate.
    A mathematical model for the temperature distribution in the preheating zone was formulated and the heat transfer properties were studied by curve-fitting with the experimental data. The result provides useful data for designing the new type of solar still.
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  • SATORU KATO, JUNJIRO KAWASAKI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 585-590
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes the enhancement of hydrocarbon (HC) permeation through liquid emulsion membranes consisting of water, an emulsifying agent and a polar additive such as sulfolane or triethylene glycol (TEG).
    The addition of sulfolane caused both an increase in membrane breakup and a decrease in mechanical entrainment. Moreover, sulfolane considerably enhanced the permeation of HCs, although selectivity decreased with increasing sulfolane concentration. When the volume fraction of sulfolane in membrane solution was 0.35, a yield of 73 % for BTX was obtained during as short a contact period as ten seconds in the presence of Span 20 at 0.3 wt % in the solvent phase. Permeation enhancement by TEG was lower than that by sulfolane.
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  • TATSUYA OKUBO, HAKUAI INOUE
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 590-597
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Surface silanol groups of porous glass were esterified completely with three alcohols -methanol, ethanol and 1-propanolor partially with 1-propanol. Through these glasses, single-gas permeation experiments using carbon dioxide, propane, R-22, and R-114 were carried out at 308, 318 and 328 K. The possibility was indicated that selectivity is improved by suitable modifications. From these experiments, surface diffusivities and Henry constants of adsorption were determined. Their values also changed with surface modifications. Surface diffusivity Ds was studied in terms of molecular hopping on the assumption that the group-group distance is equal to the hopping distance λ.Ds2, which is expected to be proportional to the average number of hopping molecules on one site, was successfully correlated with the dimensionless heat of adsorption Q/RT for original surfaces and partially and completely modified surfaces.
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  • MOTONOBU GOTO, SHIGEO GOTO
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 598-603
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A continuous rotating annular chromatograph is developed for preparative separation. An annular bed is fixed while a feed nozzle and product coDectqrs are rotated at the same speed. To evaluate the performance of this device, sodium chloride and methanol were separated by the action of ion exclusion. The rotation speed and feed rate were varied. The theoretical model predicted well the experimental concentration profile. Dispersion in the angular direction was negligible. The separation was efficiently achieved and the concentration of products was almost as high as that in the feed. The HETP was determined from the concentration profile and the contribution of respective mass transfer resistance was evaluated. The system was found to be a promising process for preparative chromatographic separation.
    Several techniques have been proposed for continuous chromatographic systems in preparative separations. Use of moving chromatographic beds permits continuous introduction of feed and continuous withdrawal of products. The systems may operate in counterflow or crossflow fashion. Counterflow systems were used industrially almost 40 years ago.2) Simulated counter-current systems were also established.5) However, most counterflow systems are restricted to two-component separation.
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  • TOSHIRO MURASE, MASASHI IWATA, MASAHIRO WAKITA, TAKEHITO ADACHI, NIICH ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 603-608
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In a batchwise variable-pressure/variable-rate expression process, the expression pressure is increased to a predetermined maximum pressure and then held constant until final equilibrium compression is obtained. For analyzing the variable-pressure/variable-rate expression process, the following assumption is made: the internal condition of compressed cake under the instantaneous pressure p in a variable-pressure/variable-rate operation is close to that in a constant-pressure operation under such a pressure p when the same volume of liquid is removed from the same amount of original materials in both operations. Using this assumption, the changes of sample thickness with expression time can be calculated from the analytical equation for the constant-pressure process based on the Terzaghi-Voigt combined model. The match between experiment and theory was satisfactory for the expression of semisolid Korean kaolin.
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  • TAKAAKI MOCHIZUKI, YASUHIKO H. MORI, NOBUFUJI KAJI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 608-613
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An experimental study was performed on heat transfer to water drops released successively from a single nozzle into a medium of a denser silicone oil confined by a pair of vertically-oriented parallel-plate electrodes. A steady electric field applied across the electrodes provides smaller drops and, if the strength of the field is high enough, makes the drops bounce back and forth between the electrodes during their rise in the medium. The heat transfer efficiency at any height above the nozzle increases sharply as the field strength increases, causing a reduction in the size of drops and then the inception of their bouncing motion. Further increase in the field strength promotes mutual coalescence of drops just after their release from the nozzle, resulting in a significant substraction of an increasing effect of the bouncing motion. Consequently, the heat transfer efficiency levels off as the field strength exceeds a certain critical level. An attempt is made to evaluate the effects of drop size reduction and of the bouncing motion separately.
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  • M. A. YOUNIS, M. A. FAHIM, NORIAKI WAKAO
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 614-618
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For a countercurrent cooling tower subjected to a thermal disturbance by inlet air or water, theoretical equations were solved in terms of zeroth moments of air and water temperatures in the tower. Experiments were carried out by changing the temperature of inlet water at the tower top. The zeroth moments of water and air temperatures at either end of the tower predicted the relationships between the air-film and water-film heat transfer coefficients, which were then compared with the heat transfer coefficients measured from steady-state operation.
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  • KOREKAZU UEYAMA, KIYOSHI FUKUURA, SHINTARO FURUSAKI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 618-622
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Oil-in-water emulsions consisting of drops smaller than 10 μm were permeated through porous polytetrafluoroethylene membranes under conditions where only the oil phase permeated. Factors influencing the oil permeation flux were experimentally investigated. They are drop size, stirring velocity during the permeation experiment, volume fraction of the oil phase, and surfactant concentration, among others. When the maximum drop size was doubled, the oil flux became almost ten times larger. Effects of stirring velocity during the permeating experiment and of volume fraction of the oil phase were very large. For the case where the surfactant (SDS) concentration was 2.6 mol/m3, the oil flux was proportional to the 4th power of the stirring velocity and the 3.4th power of the volume fraction of the oil phase. As the surfactant concentration was incresed up to the critical micelle concentration, the oil flux decreased to a very small value.
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  • SALAH E. M. HAMAM
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 623-625
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KAKUJI TOJO, Y. W. CHIEN, Y. SUN, M. GHANNAM
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 626-629
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TOSHIKUNI YONEMOTO, Juno H. EGOCHEAGA, CHOUJI FUKUHARA, HARUO KATO, TE ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 630-632
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TOSHIRO MURASE, Em IRITANI, MASAO HATTORI, KAZUMASA KOBAYASHI, MOMPEI ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 632-634
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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  • A. H. N. MOUSA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 635-637
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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  • AKIRA ITAYA, YUJI FUJITA, NOBUYUKI KATO, KEN-ICHI OKAMOTO
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 638-640
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • OSAMU KINOSHITA, TOSHINORI KOJIMA, TAKEHIKO FURUSAWA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 641-644
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YASUO HATATE, HIROSHI HAMADA, ATSUSHI IKARI, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages 644-646
    Published: December 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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