JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 13 , Issue 4
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • TAKASHI KATAYAMA, KAZUNARI OHGAKI, HIDEFUMI OHMORI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 257-262
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An improved apparatus based on the pressure-change method of Knobler is made for the purpose of obtaining interaction second virial coefficients with high accuracy. The apparatus is also used for the Burnett expansion method. Each interaction virial coefficient, B12, is determined from the excess virial coefficient obtained by the Knobler method, and the pure quantities, B12 and B22, obtained by the Burnett method.
    The second and third virial coefficients for carbon dioxide, methane and ethane were measured at 25°C by the Burnett method. The lowest pressure was about 25 kPa and the highest was about 3 MPa.
    The excess second virial coefficients were obtained at 25°C by measuring pressure changes in mixing of two pure gases for the three binary systems consisting of the three gases. Mixtures produced in the process of the pressure-change method were further used in the Burnett method for obtaining B12 in another way.
    The interaction second virial coefficients Blz obtained for the systems of carbon dioxide - methane, carbon dioxide-ethane, and methane-ethane at 25°C are -64.8±0.4, -121.8±0.7, and -92.9±0.4 cm3•mol-1, respectively.
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  • TAKESHI SAKAI, NORIMASA HOSHINO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 263-268
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    The conditions to produce liquid droplets of uniform size were investigated experimentally. The number of droplets produced and the region which allowed production of uniform-size droplets were related with the operating conditions, design parameters of nozzle and physical properties of liquid.
    It was confirmed that the number of liquid droplets produced is equal to the vibration frequency within the uniform region, and the diameter of a liquid droplet which is equivalent to a sphere was calculated by Dabora''s equation.
    The region producing uniform droplets was not affected by the appropriate amplitude of nozzle vibration, but was affected by nozzle diameter, physical properties of liquid and frequency. Nondimensional empirical equations for their prediction were obtained.
    It was found that the range of liquid velocity of the uniform region corresponds to the range of the forced oscillating smooth jet from a vibrating nozzle. Uniform droplets were produced from the forced oscillating smooth jet which is vibrated at an appropriate amplitude and frequency.
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  • TOSHIRO MARUYAMA, JUN-ICHI ANDO, TOKURO MIZUSHINA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 269-274
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    Pressure drop correlation was developed for saltation flow of a concentrated settling suspension in a horizontal pipe. The important variables of the system are the densimetric Froude number and the pressure drop of the equivalent pure-fluid flow, which take the net fluid section into account. On the basis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of stratified pipe flow, these variables are approximately expressed by independent variables of the system so as to make a prior prediction of the pressure drop. From experimental pressure drops, the validity of assumptions was confirmed and the diameter-ratio dependence was determined experimentally. The equation was tested for water and other carriers. Some methods for pressure-loss reduction at fixed values of drag coefficient are discussed.
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  • R. P. SINGH, P. MISHRA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 275-280
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    The present work deals with the study of laminar and turbulent flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids flowing through helical and Archimedian spiral coils. By using a suitable viscosity expression corresponding to the shear stress prevailing at the wall, Newtonian correlations are shown to be applicable to a non-Newtonian fluid also. Relationships for spiral coils are developed from correlations for helical coils and are successfully compared with the data of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
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  • KATSUTOSHI INOUE, HIRONORI AMANO, YOSHIHIRO YAYAMA, ISSEI NAKAMORI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 281-285
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The distribution equilibrium in the solvent extraction of copper (II) by w-hexane solution of Versatic 10, a commercial carboxylic acid produced by Shell Chemical Co. Ltd., from nitrate medium was measured at 30°C. The stoichiometric relation in this copper extraction reaction was found to be expressed as follows.
    2Cu2+aq. +3 H2R2org. ?? (CuR2•HR)2org.+4H+aq. Ke
    where the equilibrium constant was determined as Ke=1.10 × 10-13.
    Also, the aqueous solubility of Versatic 10, which is an indispensable datum for the economic evaluation of the commercial-scale extraction, was measured and was interpreted quantitatively in terms of the following two equilibria.
    H2R2org. ?? 2 HRaq. K1
    HRaq. ?? H+aq.+R-aq. K2
    where the equilibrium constants, K1 and K2 were found to be 9.6 ± 10-7 mol/l and 1.1 × 10-6 mol/l, respectively.
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  • MORIO OKAZAKI, HIROYUKI KAGE, RYOZO TOEI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 286-291
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    For the purpose of exact prediction of multi-solute adsorption equilibrium from respective single-solute adsorption isotherms, we propose a new method which employs a modified Langmuir kinematic adsorption model, assuming that the adsorptive surface of the adsorbent is heterogeneous in energy of adsorption. The predictions of adsorption equilibria on activated carbon for ten kinds of aqueous solutions, involving two solutes, were performed. The prediction accuracy of the present method was the same or slightly better than the two modified Radke''s methods, which were proposed by Jossens et al.
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  • K. F. LIN
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 292-297
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    Exact uniqueness and multiplicity criteria of steady state in a non-adiabatic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) are established through simple tangent analysis for n-th-order exothermic reaction. Criteria for multiplicity can be divided into four cases, i. e., n>1, n=1, 1>n>0, and n=0. The multiplicity criteria for an adiabatic reactor can be readily obtained from non-adiabatic results. Important parameters are reaction order, dimensionless activation energy, dimensionless heat of reaction, dimensionless heat transfer coefficient, dimensionless coolant temperature and dimensionless space time. Observed experimental multiplicity data in the literature are compared with the theory and show good agreement.
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  • TAKASHI FUKUDA, KIYOSHI IDOGAWA, KOJI IKEDA, KOJI ANDO, KAZUO ENDOH
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 298-303
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Volumetric gas-phase mass transfer coefficients based on the vessel volume, kGa'', were determined in baffled horizontal stirred vessels of four different diameters Dt from 0.159 to 0.493 m, equipped with turbine impellers, by absorption experiments on NH3-H2SO4 and H2S-NaOH systems, and by desorption experiments on HCN-NaCN system.
    The values of kGa'' are almost independent of the liquid holdup e in the range from 0.2 to 0.7. Also, the kGa'' values are not affected significantly by the number of impellers Ni or the ratio of vessel length to diameter L/Dt under the conditions of (L/Dt)/Ni<2 and l>0.67 D)t, where l is the distance between adjacent impellers.
    A dimensionless factor jD'', which is a modified jD factor, is defined and is used to correlate the data. The jD'' factor is found to be expressed in terms of dimensionless groups: the gas Reynolds number, the liquid Reynolds number based on impeller diameter and the Froude number Fr. Two relations between jD'' factor and these three dimensionless groups were obtained: one for Fr<0.2 and the other for Fr < 0.2, and the experimental results were represented by these equations with ±25% deviation.
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  • SHINTARO FURUSAKI, ICHIRO MATSUURA, TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 304-308
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effect of the cascade operation of enzymes in packed bed immobilized enzyme reactors is studied. Theoretical calculations reveal that conversions for first-order reactions or for Michaelis-Menten type reactions increase extensively by applying the cascade operation to enzymes suffering from first-order deactivation. Also, considerable reduction of enzyme consumption can be expected; that is, mean residence time of enzymes in reactors can be increased by a factor of two by use of the cascade operation, maintaining the same conversion.
    Experimental studies of hydrogenation of pyruvate to lactate, which is catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase, in connection with 4-stage and 2-stage cascade operations agreed with the above expectations.
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  • SHIN-ICHIRO NOMURA, TATSUO TANAKA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 309-313
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    Relief venting is one of the protective methods most commonly provided against dust explosion hazards. Safety design has so far been based upon the empirical vent ratio, S/V, the area of vent per unit volume of vessel. However, direct use of this term as a scale-up factor is not theoretically sound. A revised form of scale-up factor as to relief venting is proposed on the basis of the unsteady-state macroscopic energy balance and several assumptions. The derived results show that the relationship between vent area and vessel volume can be characterized by a dimensionless term which must be used instead of the conventional vent ratio. Calculated results based upon the theory agree fairly well with past experimental data.
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  • HIDEJI YAMAMOTO, YOSHIO HARANO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 313-318
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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    From the changes in light transmittance and electrical conductivity of a solution with elapsed time and from the size distribution of the final product crystals, the kinetics of the cited processes was studied. The experimental conditions are as follows: initial solute concentration, C0 [g-mol/l] =0.22-0.38; relative supersaturation ratio (C/Cs)-1=5-1=0.01-0.33; temperature 20-35°C; agitation rate 630, 1100rpm; seed crystal, 1-10 in number, size 325μ. Over the ranges of S-1=0.04-0.3, the rates of growth and nucleation were given by the following equations: dr/dt=G=kg(S-1)ng, (ng=1-1.4) and dN/dt=knNm2(S-1)nn=kn''Nm2G(S-1)nn'', (nn=1.7-2.0, Hnf=0.6-0.7). Nm is the number of crystals with radius larger than rmin, which is the radius of the smallest among the crystals breeding the secondary nuclei and which was estimated to be 100-120μ. It is suggested that nucleation takes place due to collision among the crystals, and that the probability of the formed nuclei remaining able to grow depends on (S-1).
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  • YASUHIRO MURAKAMI, TSUTOMU HIROSE, TSUTOMU YAMATO, HIDEYUKI FUJIWARA, ...
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 318-323
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A great improvement in mixing performance by the additional up-and-down motion of rotating impellers was confirmed from measurements of mixing time tM and power requirement P in a 5 l vessel. Of five impellers tested, the best mixing time was obtained with a cross-paddle consisting of two pairs of inner and outer blades pitched at opposite angles to each other. In a typical case, the mixing time was reduced to 1/3 of that for the conventional helical ribbon while the power remained unchanged, i.e. the energy for mixing completion was reduced to less than 10%. The double-stage arrangement of two impellers with spacing equal to stroke distance is preferable to the single stage, providing much improvement in mixing time in spite of the doubling of power required. The results are compared with those for conventional agitators in terms of the characteristic parameters of ntM, tMPv/μand√Pv/μn2. The mechanics of simultaneous rotary and vertical motion of the impeller by a single-drive motor is also mentioned.
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  • KOHEI OGAWA, SHIRO ITO, YUTAKA MATSUMURA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 324-326
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • MASAYUKI SATO, YOSHIO TAKANO, MASAO KURODA, TAKESHI SAKAI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 326-328
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, HIROYUKI YOSHIDA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 328-330
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • TOHRU SAKAI, KENJI SAWADA, NOBUICHI OHI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 331-334
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • KATSUJI NODA, KIYOHARU ISHIDA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 334-336
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • SHIGEO KATOH, Eizo SADA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 336-338
    Published: August 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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