JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 5 , Issue 2
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • MASAHIRO KATO, HITOSHI KONISHI, MITSUHO HIRATA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 99-103
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using new parameters in place of X or Y in the X vs. V relations proposed by Hirata and Clark, dew point line and bubble point line can be expressed in two or three straight lines, closely similar to those of Hirata''s method or Clark''s method.
    The parameters used in this paper corresponding to Hirata''s X-Y method for dew point and bubble point curves are
    Method 1 : D1 vs. D2 and B2 vs. B1
    Method 2 : D3 vs, Y and X vs. B3
    Method 3 : D3 vs. D4 and B4 vs. B3
    in which X≡x11/x2, Y≡y1/y2, D1≡a1/(1-a1), D2≡a2/(1-a2), D3≡(1-a2)/(1-a1), D4≡a1/a2, B1≡(1-b1)/b1, B2≡(1-b2)b2, B3≡(1-b2)/(1-b1), and B4≡b1/b2. The values of a and b can be calculated by a=(π/P)y from dew point data and by b=(P/π)x from bubble point data, where x, y, P, and π, respectively, express mole fraction in liquid phase, that in vapor phase, vapor pressure, and total pressure.
    Corresponding to Clark''s X-Y relations, three sets of methods are also proposed for representation of dew point and bubble point curves by using the new parameters mentioned above.
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  • KEIZO KONOKI, KATSUHIKO TAKEUCHI, GEN-ICHI KAMINISHI, TATSURO TORIUMI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 103-107
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vapor-liquid equilibria were measured by the static method for the systems hydrogen-methane-ammonia and hydrogen-nitrogen-methane-ammonia at 25°C and up to approximately 200 atm. It was found that the solubilities of gases in multicomponent systems containing liquid ammonia deviate from the values estimated from the data of binary systems.
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  • YASUHIKO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 107-111
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The hole theory is applied to represent the P-V-T-X relations at the phase boundary of the CO2-CH4 and the CO2-N2 systems. As these systems contain super-critical components, Henderson''s approximation for free volume was simplified and adopted for these expanded solutions. An equation of state was derived by introducing two characteristic parameters, which were determined from the heat of vaporization and the saturated densities of liquid and vapor of the pure substance.
    The equation of state successfully explains the P-V-T-X relations of the above systems with the aid of combining rules for characteristic parameters.
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  • YASUO KATO, AKIO NISHIWAKI, TAKASHI FUKUDA, SHIGENOBU TANAKA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 112-118
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    The longitudinal concentration distribution of solid particles and liquid mixing in 6.6, 12.2 and 21.4 cm i. d. bubble columns were measured and were analyzed by using diffusion model. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient of solid particles and liquid based on actual mean slurry velocity, the mean settling velocity of solid particles, and the concentration of solid particles at the top of the column, respectively, were correlated with dimensionless groups. From these correlations empirical equations were obtained. The values of concentration of solid particles calculated from the empirical equations agreed with the observed values within ±20%.
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  • JUNJIRO KAWASAKI, TOYOHIKO HAYAKAWA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 119-124
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Experimental study was carried out on direct-contact mass and heat transfer between vapor and liquid with change of phase, that is, simultaneous condensation of organic vapor and evaporation of water or evaporation of water alone in a bubble column equipped with gas dispersion nozzles. The systems used in this experiment were carbon tetrachloride-water and trichloroethylene-water, which were immiscible in the liquid phase.
    Volumetric coefficients of vaper phase mass transfer were measured and compared with previous work.
    From the experimental results, condensation and evaporation rates were calculated under the given operating conditions and the effects of these specified operating conditions on these rates were made clear.
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  • TAKESHI ISHIKAWA, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 125-131
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    A modified relaxation procedure is developed for calculations of the multicomponent distillation column. The method is applied to extractive distillation to calculate the product distribution and the composition and temperature profile in the column when feed conditions, flow rates, number of plates, locations of feed plates, and reflux ratio are specified.
    The method is simple and numerically stable. Some problems are discussed to demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure.
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, HIROYUKI YOSHIDA, KORETSUNE UEYAMA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 132-136
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Applying the hydraulic radius model to laminar flow in a packed bed and assuming that mass transfer in the packed bed is analogous to that between a pipe surface and a stream of liquid with steady laminar velocity profile, liquid-phase mass transfer from the packed solid sphere was analyzed and an approximate solution is proposed. Further liquid-film mass transfer coefficients were measured for benzoic acid-water system. From these results, together with previous data, it was found that the proposed equation agrees with data in Re''<10, both this equation and Carberry''s equation can be applied for 10<Re''<1OO, and Carberry''s equation fits in Re''>100.
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  • YOSHISHIGE HAYASHI, EIJI HIRAI, HIDEAKI SUEYOSHI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 137-144
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a numerical method based on the Zivi-Brand method applied to cross-flow cooling towers and an analytical solution based on the Nusselt solution of heat exchangers for the estimation of the concentration of solute in cross-flow absorption towers. Experimental apparatus used in this work are a wetted-wall tower and a rod-like irrigation tower.
    The experimental data for concentration distribution has been obtained for absorption of ammonia in city water in these towers. The results were in good agreement with results calculated by the solution described above. Therefore, these calculation methods are available for the estimation of solute concentration in cross-flow absorption towers.
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  • KUNIO KATO, UTARO ITO
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 144-149
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    The particle elutriation rate from a packed fluidized bed consisting of particles of almost uniform size is measured for various reduced bed heights, Lmf/LT various reduced gas velocities U/UT, and various packing sizes. An experimental equation for that rate is obtained.
    The elutriation rate of fine particles from a packed fluidized bed comprising particles of two sizes is also measured under various experimental conditions. That rate is proportional to the concentration of fine particles in the bed. An experimental equation for the elutriation rate constant is obtained
    Finally, the mechanism of elutriation from the packed fluidized bed is discussed.
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  • MIKIO KAWAGOE, KATSUMI NAKAO, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 149-155
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to take the dissolved gas in the bulk liquid into consideration, the absorption rate with chemical reaction and the overall reaction rate are analyzed separately on the basis of film theory. Using these rates, general design equations are derived for the multistage gas-liquid reactor.
    Since stage-to-stage calculations with trial-and-error are required to solve the design equations, simplification of the solution is discussed for practical purposes.
    As a result, a method of graphical analysis is presented for solving the design equations when dissolved gas in the liquid bulk may be neglected.
    Furthermore, the relation between absorption and overall reaction rates is represented graphically to eliminate much of the tedious trial-and-error calculation required.
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  • KEI MIYANAMI, MUNETAKE SATO, TAKEO YANO
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 156-160
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Applicability of the one-dimensional dispersion model as a flow model of a packed-bed chemical reactor is discussed for the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate by sodium hydroxide. An experimental technique, easily applied by purging one of the reactants concerned from a flow system with the other, is developed to study fluid mixing effectively in a flow system accompanying chemical reaction. Called dual-step response method, it is proved to be an effective method.
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  • SHIGEHARU MOROOKA, YASUO KATO, TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 161-167
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Holdup of gas bubbles and longitudinal dispersion coefficient of solid particles were measured in 3.2, 7.9, 12.0 and 19.5cm inside-diameter fluid beds of F.C.C. particles.
    Holdup of gas bubbles based on the emulsion bed height (Le) was dependent on superficial gas velocity (uf) and bed diameter (DT). Le was determined as the bed height obtained by extrapolating the constant rate sedimentation curve to zero time. In the range of Uf ?? 2 cm/sec, Le did not vary with uf and DT, and it was about 9% larger than the completely settled bed height for the particles used in this experiment.
    The experimental and literature data of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient of F.C.C.particles based on the mean density of fluidizing bed (E*s) were correlated with Peclet number (Pe=uf DT/E*s), Froude number (Fr=uf/√gDT ) and (DT+0.23), and the following empirical equation was obtained for bed diameter ranging from 0.032 to 1.5 m.
    Pe=19(DT+0.23)Fr/(1+6.5Fr0.8)
    where the unit of DT is meters.
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  • ISAO SEKIGUCHI, KAZUHIKO KIYAMA, HEIICHIRO TOHATA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 167-173
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To account for the compression mechanism of damp powders, the change of specific volume was measured and the relation between stress and strain was analyzed. From these results, the compression of damp powders was divided into three stages as the following resistance regions : (1) the region under the control of agglomeration energy between adjacent particles, (2) the transient region, depending on the interlocking of particles, and (3) the region of resistance by mutual friction of movable particles. In the case of (1), the relation of the compressive work to the agglomeration energy of damp powder was demonstrated, and was semi-theoretically expressed by an equation of compression states.Furthermore, a correlating equation between compressive stress and void fraction in the transient region (2) was derived by applying Athy''s equation for the data of compression (3).
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  • TAMOTSU KAMIYA, AKIRA KAYANO
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 174-182
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    The following equation was obtained for maximum drop diameter as a result of atomization experiments on film type disintegration of aqueous millet jelly solution by a rotating disk.
    dmax/r0=1.1We-3(ρQ2/σT03)0.15(Q/υr0)-0.15
    This result was studied on the basis of film extension and thickness of liquid film at the leading edge of the film. The thickness of the liquid film at the leading edge of the film can be approximated by a simple relation. This relation supports the appropriateness of the results of the atomization experiment. Thickness of liquid film and maximum drcp diameter are proportional.
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  • EIICHI KOJIMA, TAKASHI AKEHATA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 182-187
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    A mixing model that assumes two regions of upward and downward plug flows in a batch reactor and exchange of fluid between them is presented and its impulse response is solved by a Laplace transformation. When exchange rate is low, the impulse response curves are stepwise and when high, the curves are smooth. The calculated responses compare satisfactorily with the experimental responses in a bubble column.
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  • SHINJI NAGATA, MASABUMI NISHIKAWA, TAKASHI KAYAMA, MASAKATSU NAKAJIMA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 187-192
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Heat transfer coefficients from a jacket wall (hj) and to a rotating coil impeller (hc) were studied in highly viscous non-Newtonian liquids.
    Correlated equations were determined for both hj and hc in laminar and turbulent regions. It was observed that hc was almost three times as large as hj. An explanationis presented for this phenomenon.
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  • KOJI ANDOU, HIDEAKI TABO, KAZUO ENDOH
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 193-197
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    To stabilize the flow pattern and to evaluate capability as a gas absorber, experiments were performed with baffled vessels. Apparatuses used were three geometrically similar batch horizontal stirred vessels. Studies were madeon the transfer rate of oxygen into sodium sulphite solution.
    Results obtained were :
    1) In the experiments, Froude No. was varied over a wide range to correlate the overall volumetric absorbtion coefficient KGa. The relation between KGa and Froude No. fora baffled vessel accorded with the one obtaind for a non-baffled vessel in state A1 corresponding to the limited range of Froude No., in which the liquid is splashed violently by the impeller.
    2) The over-all volumetric absorption coefficient KGawas approximately in proportion to power consumption per unit volume Pv.
    It was expressed by:
    KGA=KPV : Dt=10.6-18.4, ε=0.3-0.7, PV=5X100-2X102: K=5.5X109 (oxygen-sodium sulphite solution system)
    where Dt is diameter of vessel, ε is ratio of volume of liquid to volume of vessel.
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  • HISAYOSHI MATSUYAMA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 197-203
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Anecessary condition is discussed for the stability of an adiabatic tubular reactor when Peclet number for mass transfer is not equal to that for heat transfer. The condition is derived from a necessary and sufficient condition for a set of ordinary differential equations in which the coefficients depend upon the equilibrium state profile to have eigenvalues with negative real parts. The condition is given in terms of the relationship between the slope of the heat generation curve and that of the heat removal line as is given for the stability condition of a stirred-tank reactor. It is also shown that the condition is equivalent to Amundson''s stability condition when Peclet number for mass transfer is equal to that for heat transfer.
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  • MASARU SHIMIZU, TAKAO KOKUGAN, FUJIO WATANABE, SACHIO SUGIYAMA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 203-207
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For fluid enclosed between two vertical plates at different temperatures, transport equations were integrated numerically by Poots'' method, and a correlation Eq.(18) derived for estimation of Nunumber. Moreover, a criterion of the conduction region were derived, using Eq.(18). Especially in the region of L/d≥20, the criterion may be expressed by Eq.(20).This criterion agreed with experiments of Eckert et al and Elder, and is applied as a better criterion than Batchelor''s.
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  • HAJIMU UYEHA, YUTAKA HAGIHARA
    1972 Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 207-208
    Published: June 30, 1972
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An experiment on distillation of E.H. P.-mT. C. P. system was performed by use of pot still in a range of residual air pressure from 1.0×10-3mmHg to 3.5×10-1mmHg.The effects of residual air pressure and liquid surface temperature on relative volatility have become clear. The agitation effect on relative volatility was also investigated.
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