JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 17 , Issue 2
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • CHIAKI YOKOYAMA, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 109-113
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An augmented van der Waals equation of state developed in a previous study was applied to the calculation of high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of non-polar asymmetric mixtures. The equation of state for a non-polar substance comprised three terms, each of which was classified into repulsion, symmetric interaction and non-polar asymmetric interaction. Two types of mixing models based on the one-fluid model, that is, the van der Waals one-fluid model and a semiempirical mixing model of Kreglewski and Kay, were tested for both repulsion and symmetric interaction terms, while two types of semiempirical mixing models based on the one-fluid model and on the threefluid model were developed for the non-polar asymmetric interaction term. This method, which applied a separate mixing model to each interaction term, provided good correlation results for the high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of non-polar asymmetric mixtures.
    Download PDF (351K)
  • YUJI SANO, SHUICHI YAMAMOTO, HIDEMASA YAMAMOTO, ROGER B. KEEY
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 114-119
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The drying behaviour of a drop of polymer solution of the polyacrylonitrile-dimethylformamide system was investigated in a wide range of drying air temperature (323-423 K), initial drop volume (2-8 μl), and initial concentration of solvent in a drop (5-18 kg DMF/kg PAN). The theoretical calculation of the drying history of a drop, based on the diffusion equation and the differential heat balance equation, using the experimental values of activity and apparent mutual diffusion coefficient, represented the experimental values satisfactorily. The changes of solvent content and temperature of a drop during drying were well correlated by the ratio (drying time)/(initial radius of a drop)2, eliminating the effect of drop size. The shift in controlling step of the drying rate from surface evaporation resistance controlling to internal diffusion resistance controlling is shown by means of changes in the concentrations at the center and the surface of a drop.
    Download PDF (459K)
  • TOSHIRO MARUYAMA, NAOYUKI KAMISHIMA, TOKURO MIZUSHINA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 120-126
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mixing of liquids in tanks by means of a non-reacting gas-bubble plume was studied by using a tracer response method. The circulation time was obtained from the period of a damping oscillation of the response curve. The mixing time was defined as the time required to reduce the concentration variation to within 1% of the mixed mean value and was measured by an impulse response.
    The results indicate that the induced liquid flow-rate varies as the first power of the submergence depth of the nozzle and as the 1/3 power of both the gas flow rate and the horizontal cross-section of the tank. When the circulating flow in the tank dominates the mixing, the ratio of mixing time to circulation time is nearly equal to that of the liquid jet mixing, and increases with decreasing distance between nozzle and side wall of the tank. When gas is injected in a central region of the tank, the mixing time becomes larger with decreasing depth of liquid, due to an effect of relative stagnation. Rapid mixing is achieved by injecting gas at a mid-radius of the tank, where the effects of both tank wall and relative stagnation can be excluded.
    Download PDF (463K)
  • OSAMU ARIGA, MASAHITO TAYA, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 127-132
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To make use of brown juice from the leaf protein concentrate (LPC) production process, concentration of the juice and production of single-cell protein (SCP) with use of residual sugars in the juice were carried out. A six-fold concentrate of the juice could be obtained by reverse-osmosis procedure. Inhibition effects of plant phenolics on the growth of yeast were observed and attempts to remove the phenolics with various adsorbents were carried out. A hydrophobic resin (Diaion HP-20) was the most effective for adsorption of the phenolics, and the resin could be regenerated by use of ethanol. Productivity of SCP was enhanced by concentration, and the biomass obtained in a batch culture with the condensed brown juice (CBJ) attained 45.7 kg/m3.
    It was possible to evaluate the treatment efficiency of CBJ from inhibition and adsorption experiments for typical polyphenols such as pyrocatechol or resorcinol.
    Download PDF (514K)
  • TOSHIRO MARUYAMA, HIDEHIKO MAEDA, TOKURO MIZUSHINA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 132-139
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The flow regimes of a tapered fluidized bed were represented on a diagram with two lines which show positions of the minimum fluidization velocity and the terminal falling velocity. The diagram was used to calculate the bed height and pressure drop by a proposed method. The results were compared with measurements for two-dimensional tapered fluidized beds. Some hydraulic characteristics were discussed on the basis of the measured voidage distributions.
    The results show that the proposed method predicts the bed height and pressure drop on the basis of the empirical voidage, which is expressed as a power function of the local superficial velocity. The calculation procedure is also applicable to multi-species particle systems with an assumption of complete segregation of the species. The voidage in a tapered fluidized bed of large apex angle is smaller and its dependence on velocity is less than that for a cylindrical fluidized bed. This suppresses bed expansion and promotes mixing between different solid species.
    Download PDF (549K)
  • MOTOYUKI SUZUKI, Kl-SUNG HA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The fundamental relations such as equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion in removal of ammonium from wastewaters by natural zeolite are examined by using two different clinoptilolite samples collected from Korea and Japan.
    The selectivity coefficient of ammonium ion versus sodium ion in these materials defined from mass action law,
    ??
    does not take a constant value as in the case of organic exchange resin, but varies with degree of exchange, YNH4+, in the zeolite. Then it can be correlated as:
    ??
    Also, the intraparticle diffusion coefficient was determined from ion exchange measurement in a stirred tank. The effective diffusion coefficient of the two ions in clinoptilolite was evaluated as 4-5 × 10-12m2/s.
    Download PDF (522K)
  • MOTOHIRO OKAZAKI, SHOJI KIMURA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 145-151
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mechanism of calcium sulfate dihydrate scale formation on reverse-osmosis membranes was studied by the introduction of a theory of crystallization. According to this theory, the values of the growth rate constant and the waiting period before nucleation obtained in long-term runs were reasonable in comparison with data obtained from the literature cited. From these experimental results, the theory proved to be applicable to scale formation on reverse-osmosis membranes.
    For practical application, the theory could be extended to binary system solutions containing sodium chloride, which is the major component in sea and brackish water, with adequate approximations.
    Using this theory, we can predict membrane characteristics during scale formation.
    Download PDF (506K)
  • MASAO SUDOH, JIRO YUGAMI, TADASHI SHIROTSUKA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 152-157
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To study the factors influencing the polarization characteristics of a flow-through electrode with electro-conductive particles, theoretical analyses have been made by the one-dimensional expression of a two-phase model with combinations of the general electro-chemical reaction rate and the fundamental equation of fluidization state. Potential, overpotential and effectiveness factor of the bed were studied for two systems, fast electrode reaction and slow electrode reaction. To indicate the performance of polarization characteristics of the particulate electrode, bed overpotential was introduced.
    Experimentally, potential profiles and polarization curves were measured in the particulate electrode with graphite particles by using the reduction of ferricyanide in alkaline solution. The variation of polarization curves with changing bed expansion were well explained by the calculated results with an available fraction of surface area of electrode of f= 0.38.
    Download PDF (418K)
  • YASUO HATATE, TAKA-AKI OTAKE, ATSUSHI IKARI, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 158-165
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In homogeneous radical copolymerization involving a minute amount of either monomer, the usual Mayo-Lewis type copolymerization rate equation might not be applicable to the consumption rate of the minor monomer component because of the penultimate effect. Precise data on the consumption rate of the minor monomer component are necessary to clarify this point.
    In this study, St-AN copolymerization involving a minor monomer was carried out to study the problem, using a continuous stirred-tank reactor under a wide range of experimental conditions.
    The above-mentioned aspect has been proved to hold in this copolymerization system. Considering the copolymer composition equation based on the penultimate effect, practical copolymerization rate equations were developed to cover the whole range of copolymerization, that is, up to the copolymerization at a minute concentration either of the monomers.
    Download PDF (557K)
  • ULRICH HAUPTMANNS, HERMINIO SASTRE
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 165-173
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A fault tree is constructed to represent the major failure mechanisms of a plant for the production of vinyl acetate. Component failure rates from different sources are compared and provide input information for its quantitative evaluation. Results with and without inclusion of human error are calculated and proposals for an improvement of the original design are made. The dispersion of failure rate data is described by a log-normal distribution and its effect on the value obtained for system unreliability is assessed.
    Download PDF (584K)
  • MITSUNORI HOZAWA, NOBUYUKI KOMATSU, NOBUYUKI IMAISHI, KATSUHIKO FUJINA ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 173-179
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Interfacial turbulence during the physical absorption of CO2 into non-aqueous solvents such as methanol and toluene was investigated experimentally from the point of view of the mass transfer rates.
    Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients were measured in the range of gas-liquid contact time t = 0.1-1000 s, using a wetted-wall column, a two-dimensional source flow cell and a quiescent liquid cell, and were compared with calculated values from the penetration theory. The gas-liquid interface during absorption was observed by schlieren photography.
    It was found that interfacial turbulence owing to the Marangoni effect occurs around t = 0.1 s and succeedingly a density driven convection is superimposed on the turbulence after t = 5-50 s when CO2 is absorbed into non-aqueous (organic) solvents. It is also found that Marangoni-type turbulence occurs in the condition of negative Marangoni number.
    Download PDF (678K)
  • IKURO SHISHIDO, IZUMI OISHI, SHIGEMORI OHTANI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 179-186
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Permeability and apparent diffusivity within a heat pipe wick were measured over a wide range of moisture content. Obtained data showed a strong dependence on the saturation of working fluid.
    By use of the results, saturation distributions within wick were calculated for several kinds of heat pipes under various operating conditions. Also, the capillary limit was predicted by taking account of the saturation-dependent permeability and apparent diffusivity.
    Fairly good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental data of saturation distribution and maximum heat transfer rate at the capillary limit.
    Download PDF (577K)
  • MASATOSHI MINAMIZAWA, KAZUO ENDOH
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 186-191
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An experimental investigation was performed to study the fluid resistance acting on an oscillating disk over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Data were reduced by the method of Fourier analysis to obtain average values of the added-mass and drag coefficients over one cycle of oscillation, i.e., kav andCDav respectively.
    The relationships between these coefficients and the modified Reynolds number, d2ω/v, were found to change between two regions of d2ω/v, where the flow pattern induced by the disk also changed. In the Reynolds number region where inner circulations are induced exclusively, kav and CDav decreased with an increasing d2ω/v and kav was independent of the amplitude of oscillation. In the Reynolds number region where inner and outer circulations coexist, kav was dependent only on the amplitude ratio, a/d; CDav was almost independent of d2ω>/v and correlated well with a/d, provided d2ω/v200. The maximum force on the disk during a cycle of oscillation was also examined. Empirical equations for the added-mass, drag and maximum resistance coefficients were presented for each region.
    The average power number, NPav, was defined and correlations for NPav were theoretically derived from those obtained for CDav.
    Download PDF (443K)
  • MOTOHIRO OKAZAKI, SHOJI KIMURA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 192-198
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The determination of transport parameters used for inorganic solutes was extended to various organic solutes including those which show negative rejection. The physical meaning of the three transport parameters (hydraulic permeability, solute permeability and reflection coefficient) was studied.
    The solute permeability obtained both from diffusion and reverse osmosis experiments using a symmetric membrane coincided well, and it could be split into diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient by the former experiments. It was also found that results for symmetric and asymmetric membranes, which have the same reflection coefficient, could be transformed only by correction of the thickness.
    Download PDF (517K)
  • KIYOTAKA SAKAI, MICHIO MINESHIMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 198-203
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper discusses a new quantitative evaluation of the artificial kidney. Newly defined dialysance, which is a characterization parameter of module performance, is derived from a consideration of dialysis as well as filtration effects.
    This newly defined dialysance is independent of both incoming blood concentration and time, if all of the operating parameters are kept constant with respect to time. It was further proved to be more useful, especially in the case of high ultrafiltration therapies such as hemodiafiltration or hemofiltration.
    Download PDF (410K)
  • SHIGEO GOTO, MOTONOBU GOTO, SEIICHI UCHIYAMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 204-205
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (149K)
  • A. H. N. MOUSA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 206-208
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (212K)
  • YUKINARI SATO, KAZUO YAMAMOTO, TOKURO MIZUSHINA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 209-211
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (215K)
  • TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, TERUO TAKAHASHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 211-214
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (304K)
  • HANS T. KARLSSON
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 214-215
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (125K)
  • MOTOHIRO OKAZAKI, SHOJI KIMURA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 216-218
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (215K)
  • TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, TERUO TAKAHASHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 218-220
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (242K)
  • TORAJIRO HONMA, MASAHIRO HASEGAWA, YOSHITERU KANDA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 221-223
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (278K)
  • SHIMIO SATO, TOMITAKA UEMATSU, MINORU MORITA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 223-225
    Published: April 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (171K)
feedback
Top