JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 4 , Issue 2
Showing 1-18 articles out of 18 articles from the selected issue
  • YASUHIKO ARAI, GEN-ICHI KAMINISHI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 113-122
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The P-V-T-X relations around the phase boundaries have been measured for the carbon dioxide-nitrogen and the carbon dioxide-methane systems. A visual glass capillary was used as the equilibrium cell. The principle of the experimental procedure is based on the dew and bubble point method. The pressure range covered was from 20 to 150 atm and the experimental temperatures were 15°C, 0°C and -20°C. From the data obtained, compressibility factor charts were constructed for the entire experimental range. The fugacities and partial molar volumes were also calculated.
    Finally it was found that there is a straight-line relationship between pressure and average density of coexisting liquid and vapor for the binary systems studied here. This relationship is similar to Cailletet-Mathias rule between temperature and average density for a pure substance.
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  • KENJI OCHI, KAZUO KOJIMA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 122-128
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Thermodynamically exact equations are derived for determining the infinite dilution ternary activity coefficients in liquid phase from isothermal total pressure-concentration data (P-x) and from isobaric bubble temperature-concentration data (T-x), respectively, for a ternary system.
    Practical calculations by these equations are illustrated for the dichloroethane-ethanolwater system at 40°C and the ethanol-isopropyl alcohol-water system at 760 mmHg.
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  • SHIRO ITO, KOHEI OGAWA, SHOJI URUSHIYAMA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 128-134
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Concerning Newtonian liquid flow in a circular pipe, the critical position where the first disturbance occurs and the process of transition from laminar to turbulent flow are studied with an electro-chemical technique.
    The critical position predicted from theoretical considerations is 0.577rw (rw is radius of pipe) from the axis of pipe, and this is confirmed by experiments.
    The transitional process is described by probability density distribution of velocity fluctuations, intermittency factor, peak numbers, maximum range of velocity fluctuations and intensity of velocity fluctuations. The relation of these factors to each other is discussed.
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  • TOKURO MIZUSHINA, SHUNJI TAKESHITA, GENICHIRO UNNO
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 135-140
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    In this paper, a fully developed turbulent flow of water in a porous-wall tube with suction or injection flow through the wall was experimentally studied. The experimental runs were executed at a fixed value of Reynolds number of inlet flow at about 25000 and with varying vw√u from -1.78×10-3 to 4.16×10-3.
    The radial velocity component is almost linear, but it is found that the radial distribution of shear stress becomes non-linear as the mass flux through the wall becomes larger.
    The mixing lengths in the flow with and without mass flux are correlated by a Reichardttype equation and the normalized values of eddy diflFusivity are also correlated with a single equation. The measurements of the local and average friction factor are in good agreement with predictions by the film theory.
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  • SATOSHI MURATA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 140-146
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Two simultaneous partial integro-differential equations which determine the transient heat transfer in a packed bed are introduced instead of Schumann''s equations which assume high thermal diffusivity and uniform temperature within the solid particles.
    These equations are useful for cases of both high and low thermal diffusivity of the solid.
    An approximate analytical solution for low Biot number is derived from the equations by neglecting all terms after the first in one of the equations. The analytical solution is similar to Furnas'' except for the definition of variables, and it is mathematically proved that the variables are also identical in the case of infinite thermal diffusivity of the solid.
    Procedure of numerical calculation for rigorous solution is given for a set of operating conditions, and computed solution for Biot number =1, 2, 3, 4, 5, are graphically presented. The theoretical results agree well with experimental results in the cooling of a column of eggs.
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  • MASARU ISHIDA, RICHARD C. BAILIE, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 146-149
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Moving boundary problems with mass and heat transfer are discussed and an apparent thermaf conductivity ke'' is proposed to represent the effect of the sensible heat of the diffusing gas on the moving rate of the boundary. Although this effect is usually small, it should be taken into account for some cases when the drying of wet porous bodies or the thermal decomposition of solids is conducted at a high ambient temperature.
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  • KENJI HASHIMOTO, MASAAKI TERAMOTO, SHINJI NAGATA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 150-155
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The hydrogenation of fatty oils is a complicated heterogeneous gas-liquid reaction catalyzed by solids. It is industrially important to hydrogenate the polyunsaturated fatty acid groups in triglyceride oils in preference to the monounsaturated ones. On the basis of the reaction kinetics determined previously using a nonlinear least-squares method, a simple model describing the effect of mass transfer on the selectivity of the hydrogenation is presented for a semibatch reactor. It was found that this model can explain general rules for increasing the selectivity, and predict satisfactorily experimental results under conditions of both higher and lower degrees of agitation.
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  • TSUTAO OTAKE, SETSUJI TONE, YOSHITSUGU YOKOTA, KAZUO YOSHIMURA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 155-159
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The rate of sulfur dioxide oxidation over activated carbon was measured in gaseous stream of sulfur dioxide-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures. It was found that catalyst fouling during the reaction was caused by sulfur trioxide formed on carbon. According to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the over-all rate equation was derived on the basis of the mechanism where the rate-determining step is a surface reaction. The rate data were well correlated with the rate equation.
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  • MAMORU NOMURA, MAKOTO HARADA, KAZUHIDE NAKAGAWARA, WATARU EGUCHI, SHIN ...
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 160-166
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was carried out at 50°C using sodium lauryl sulfate as an emulsifier and potassium persulfate as an initiator, and the role of the polymer particles produced in this system was studied on the basis of a previous theory. The low value of the average number of radicals per particle obtained in this work, i.e. in the range 0.01 - 0.5, is explained by introducing a mechanism of a rapid escape of monomeric radicals produced by the chain-transfer reaction which occurs dominantly in the polymer particles. Semiempirical equations are proposed for the estimation for the average number of radicals per particle over the whole range of monomer conversion.
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  • ZENNOSUKE TANAKA, HIROAKI TAKAI, NORISHIGE OKADA, KOICHI IINOYA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 167-171
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Centrifugal particle size classification by a gas centrifuge which produces a forced vortex was investigated at reduced pressures. In this method, different particle trajectories cause the formation of a continuous gradation of particle size on the rotor wall. Here, particles in the subsieve and submicron ranges were classified with good resolution because the ''Cunningham correction'' increases as pressure decreases. Also, the computed solutions gave excellent agreement with the experimental results. The numerical solutions with and without the integral term for non-uniform motion have been compared, the approximate equation of best fit for the drag coefficient of spherical particles being used in both cases.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TSUTOMU ARAGAKI, KAZUO ICHIMURA, NORIO OOTSUJI
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 172-177
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    To examine the propriety of the so-called "modern filtration theory", porosity variations in constant-pressure filtration cakes are measured electrically by means of filter equipment having six pairs of disk-type electrodes. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical values predicted by filtration theory on the basis of compression-permeability data. The so-called "retarded packing compressibility" phenomena previously presented by Rietema et al. are not recognized through all runs attempted in this study.
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  • TOSHIYUKI YOKOTA, TOSHIYUKI OSAWA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 178-183
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The feedforward control of co-current stage processes has been investigated. Forming inner feedforward control loops inside the stage process is expected to improve the process dynamics. To get suitable control response to load change, parameter optimization is discussed. The optimum controller gains can be determined by analytical or numerical computation.
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  • YEN-PING SHIH, KUO-HUNG CHEN
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 183-187
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    It is shown that certain tubular processes with varying flow rate and with performance criterion based on the output variables of the systems can be transformed into integral equation systems with time-varying delay. Necessary conditions for the optimization of a class of integral equation systems with time-varying delay are derived by use of variational technique. Steepest-descent method of control variable iteration is derived. Computational results are then given for the programming control of a wall temperature forced tubular heat exchanger with varying flow rate.
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  • RYOZO TOEI, MORIO OKAZAKI, MASASHI ASAEDA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 188-191
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Mass transfer between infinite parallel plates under vacuum was treated by analyzing the Boltzmann equation with the two-sided Maxwellian velocity distribution function of molecules. The equation obtained from this analysis coincides completely with that derived from the "series-resistance model'' of the resistances of evaporation, condensation and diffusion. The results were compared with the theoretical results obtained by Uyeha et al. in 1960.
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  • SOK MOON YOON, DAIZO KUNII
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 191-193
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Employing two kinds of fine glass beads at low Reynolds numbers, the longitudinal dispersion coefficients of gas were measured in a moving bed by analyzing the response curves measured at two downstream points of a bed. The dispersion data obtained in a moving bed were comparable with the results investigated by Carberry and Bretton3) in a packed bed for Ihe same sysiem of helium-air. The effect of solid velocities on the gas mixing was not so favorable, and the concept of tortuosity factor was acceptable to describe the discrepancy of the data with the molecular diffusivity at low Reynolds numbers.
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  • KAKUSABURO ONDA, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI, SHIGEO KATO, HIROSHI TAKEUCHI
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 193-196
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The absorption of carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide into aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been performed in a packed column, and its application to the theory of gas absorption accompanied by chemical reaction has been studied. Furthermore, the effects of the heat of solution and heat of reaction on gas absorption rate have also been investigated. The experimental values of reaction factor, which were evaluated from Eq.(7) by using the mean values of temperature and concentration at the top and the bottom of the column respctively, were in good agreement with theoretical values within an error of 30%, even though the liquid temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the column was as high as 30°C. Thus, the overall reaction factor in the packed column may be evaluated from Eq.(7) for other reaction systems.
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  • HIROSHI KUBOTA, I. G. DALLA LANA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 196-199
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    In a reactor with recycle of reactants, the relation between yield and recycle ratio of reactants is simply determined by the yield vs. feed-rate relation for single-pass operation of the reactor. If the reaction rate exhibits a maximum at a finite extent of reaction, a maximum yield is obtained at a finite recycle ratio of reactants. In this case, at yield less than the maximum value, dual values of recycle ratio are predicted for each desired yield. Operation with lower recycle ratio is only stable in a similar sense to concentration stability.
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  • RUITEN OUYANG
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 2 Pages 199
    Published: June 30, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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