JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 10 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • YOSHIYUKI TANAKA, HIRONOBU KUBOTA, TADASHI MAKITA, HIDEMASA OKAZAKI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 83-88
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The viscosities of three binary gaseous mixtures N2 + He, N2+CClF3 (R13) and N2+CHCIF2 (R22), have been measured at 25°, 50° and 75°C over a range of pressures from the atmospheric to about 8 bar. The measurements were performed by a rolling-ball viscometer in the laminar flow region on a relative basis. The calibration curves were prepared using N2 and H2 at the experimental conditions. The uncertainty in the viscosity should be smaller than 0.5 percent.
    The viscosity of the nonpolar gas system, N2+He, increases with pressure throughout the experimental temperatures in the same manner as nonpolar pure gases. However, the mixtures containing one polar gas, N2+CClF3 and N2+CHC1F2, behave anomalously at the lowest temperature, 25°C, where the viscosity decreases slightly with increasing pressure.
    The experimental viscosity values were used to evaluate three expressions presented by Bird-Hirschfelder-Curtiss, Wilke and Brokaw for the estimation of the viscosity of gas mixtures.
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  • AKIRA YASUNISHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 89-94
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Solubilities of oxygen in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions have been measured at an oxygen partial pressure of 1 atm and temperatures of 15, 25 and 35°C by the gas saturation method. The results are not correlated by the empirical Setschenow equation. The estimated solubility of the system at 25°C by the method of van Krevelen et al. is appreciably lower than the observed results.
    Solubilities of nitrogen in various concentrations of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfite solutions have been measured at 25°C and nitrogen partial pressure of 1 atm.
    Solubility of oxygen in aqueous sodium sulfite solutions at 25°C is estimated from the above results. Solubilities of nitrogen and oxygen in aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfite mixed solutions are also discussed.
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  • HIROSHI SAGARA, YASUHIKO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 95-100
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The enthalpies of hydrogen-methane, hydrogen-ethane, and hydrogen-propane mixtures were measured by flow calorimetry at several temperatures from 120 K to 210 K and 6.8 atm and 13.6 atm. The experimental data ranged in the vapor and vapor-liquid coexisting regions.
    By adopting the previously proposed estimation method of hypothetical liquid properties of hydrogen, the regular solution theory could be successfully applied to predict the enthalpies of hydrogen-light hydrocarbon mixtures in vapor-liquid coexisting region.
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  • YOSUKE MAEKAWA, TADAO ISHII, GEN TAKEYA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 101-103
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    The hydrogenolysis of Sumiyoshi coal was studied at 400°C under the reaction pressure of 110 to 220 atm. The reaction rate constant was calculated from the rate of decrease of unreacted coal. The data obtained were expressed as a first order reaction consisting of two steps. The rate constant in the second step increased linearly with the hydrogen pressure. But the rate constant of the direct production of oil from coal in the first step was almost constant.
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  • YUJI KAWAMURA, HIDEO SHINAGAWA, MITSURU SEZE, HIROSHI MAKIHARA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 104-108
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pressure distribution in a circular tube under a free molecule regime was analyzed by utilizing local Maxwellian and Monte Carlo methods.
    It is recognized that pressure slip at the entrance and exit of the tube exist and the distribution is linearly changed along the tube axis.
    The magnitudes of the slips increase with the decrease of the ratio of length to radius of tube and the ratio of pressure at the exit to that at the entrance.
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  • HAJIME NAKAMURA, AKIHIRO MATSUURA, JUMEI KIWAKI, SETSURO HIRAOKA, IKUH ...
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 109-115
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A numerical method using the finite difference techniques for a triangular coordinates system is presented for flow and heat transfer problems of fully developed combined free and forced laminar convection in arbitrary triangular ducts, where the boundary condition with the axially uniform wall heat flux and the peripherally uniform wall temperature is taken into consideration.
    The numerical examples are carried out for horizontal isosceles and inclined equilateral triangular ducts. For the horizontal isosceles triangular ducts, correlative relationships with respect to fRe/(fRe)0 vs. ReRaPr and Nu/Nu0 vs. ReRaPr at Pr=0.73 are obtained for various vertex angles, where subscript 0 signifies the value of pure forced convection. Additionally, the influence of those relationships by Pr is examined.
    For inclined equilateral ducts with upward flow, fRe and Nu are correlated with the two modified parameters, Ra* and Re*, implicitly including an inclination angle. Furthermore, the influence of rotation and inclination angles on fRe and Nu is shown for equilateral triangular ducts.
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  • MANABU TAKATSU
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 116-119
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    The equations to obtain the temperature and the thermal stress profiles in an infinite hollow cylinder have been derived under various boundary conditions with respect to the sudden cooling: a) constant film heat transfer coefficient, b) constant heat flux. The boundary conditions used in this paper were classified as follow: I) Both surfaces relate to a). II) Both surfaces relate to b). Ill) Inner surface relates to a) and the other one relates to b). IV) Inner surface relates to b) the other one relates to a).
    Furthermore, correlative equations of the nondimensional maximum thermal stress with respect to the Biot''s number and the nondimensional heat flux have been proposed for the boundary conditions mentioned above. These equations can be applied to predicting the thermal fracture of materials.
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  • HARUO HIKITA, SATORU ASAI, HARUO ISHIKAWA, SHIGEYUKI HIRANO
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 120-124
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    The rates of absorption of nitric oxide in aqueous acidic solutions of ferrous sulfate of concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 0.5 g-mol/l were measured at 15, 25 and 35°C using a liquid-jet column and a wetted-wall column. The experimental results were analysed with the chemical absorption theory based on the penetration model. The second-order forward rate constants for the reaction between nitric oxide and ferrous sulfate in aqueous solutions were calculated and correlated as a function of temperature and ionic strength of the solution. The chemical equilibrium constants for the reaction were also determined from the measurements of the total solubility of nitric oxide in aqueous ferrous sulfate solutions.
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  • HIROSHI KOMIYAMA, HAKUAI INOUE
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 125-130
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    The performances of a supported liquid phase catalyst are investigated under unsaturated vapor pressures of the solvent, in contrast with the conditions of previous studies where the presaturated reacting gas mixtures were applied for preventing vaporization of the solvent. In the present work, oxidation of ethylene to produce acetaldehyde is carried out by the catalyst system of aqueous solution of PdCI2 and CuCl2 supported on porous particles. It is found that the reaction takes place at much higher rates when the reactant gas is not saturated with the water solvent than when it is saturated. The increase in activity of the reaction is considered to be brought about by the dual features of mass transfer and chemical reaction. The effectiveness factor of the catalyst is, in the case of unsaturated gas, increased by rapid gas diffusion through the empty space in the pore volume which otherwise is filled with liquid. The activity for the unsaturated gas becomes sometimes about two orders of magnitude greater than even the mass transfer free activity for the saturated gas. An attempt is made to propose a reaction model which explains both qualitatively and quantitatively the kinetic data obtained experimentally under the unsaturated conditions.
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  • TING-CHIA HUANG, FUAN-NAN TSAI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 131-136
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A mathematical model has been proposed for a heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction which involves film diffusion, surface chemical reaction and intraparticle diffusion. The exchange equation to predict the exchange fraction as a function of time for the spherical particles immersed in a solution of finite volume has been derived. The relations between the exchange fraction and dimensionless time are plotted with ε(=akf/KDe, ε1(=K1a2/De) and final fractional uptake as parameters. From the values of the kinetic parameters ε and ε1, the relative importance of each limiting step is discussed. Experimental results of the isotopic exchange reaction of calcium ion in both system CaCO3(s)/Ca2+(aq) and system calcium type resin Dowex 50W-X8/Ca2+(aq) are coincident with the theoretical equation proposed in this study.
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  • MASUNORI SUGIMOTO, KENICHI YAMAMOTO, JOHN C. WILLIAMS
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 137-141
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    On the basis of the assumption of the separation mechanism that the separation of spherical particles from the mixture containing non-spherical particles on an inclined rotating disc with a spiral scraper will be controlled by the number of the non-spherical particles in the separating zone on the disc, it is shown that the number of the non-spherical particles can be approximately predicted by the operating variables and that their effect on the efficiency will be determined by the value of the group (ndpi2ppi/Fi) below the critical value of the disc inclinations and rotating speeds.
    It is found experimentally that Newton''s separation efficiency can be predicted from the equation in which the efficiency increases exponentially with the value of the group, regardless of the fraction of spherical particles in the mixture.
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  • KIKUO OKUYAMA, YASUO KOUSAKA, YOSHINORI KIDA, TETSUO YOSHIDA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 142-147
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Turbulent coagulation of aerosol particles was studied experimentally by observing the time-dependent changes in particle number concentration and size distribution of aerosol for various intensities of stirring in a stirred tank, using the ultramicroscopic size analysis. From the observed data on the decrease in particle number concentration of aerosol, the rate constants of turbulent coagulation were evaluated and compared with some of the most representative theories, and were found in good agreement with Saffman and Turner''s theory. Further, the changes in particle size distribution observed were confirmed by those obtained by numerically solving the equation of coagulation for polydisperse aerosol, the so-called population balance equation.
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  • HITOSHI EMI, KIKUO OKUYAMA, MOTOAKI ADACHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 148-153
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    The effect of the volume fraction of the fibers in fibrous air filters on the collection efficiency of a single fiber has been examined both theoretically and experimentally in the inertia predominant region.
    Numerical solutions have been obtained for the flow around a circular cylinder in a cell determined by the volume fraction of the fibers for a Reynolds number of 10 and the potential flow. Particle trajectories have been calculated in the cell by introducing the above numerical values into the equations of particle motion. As a result, the inertia-interception efficiency was evaluated through four parameters; inertia parameter, interception parameter, Reynolds number and volume fraction.
    Experimental data on model filters, which are made of a uniform parallel arrangement of wires orientated at right angles to the flow direction have shown good agreement with the calculation results in the intermediate Reynolds numbers region.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TOSHIRO MURASE, NIICHI HAYASHI, TOSHIHARU FUKUSHIMA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 154-159
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    Analytical methods for dehydration of filter cakes and semi-solids materials by constant pressure expression are presented under the existence of medium resistance and creep effects. The equations are solved for various ratios of (Rc/Rm), and the calculated results show good agreements with experiments.
    In view of the existence of medium resistance, basic consolidation equations based upon Terzaghi-Voigt model are solved in terms of the ratio of cake-medium resistance (Rc/Rm) and the creep constants B and η. In order to determine the experimental values of the consolidation coefficient Ce for constant pressure expression with appreciable medium resistance, graphical fitting methods which are the modifications of the methods formerly reported, together with the values of the parameters of ζ, ξ, ζ'' and ξ'', all of which depend upon (Rc/Rm) is employed. It is shown that the decrease in dehydration rate due to the existence of medium resistance is great when Rm≥Rc/10. Satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments are assured for both filter cakes and saturated semisolid materials.
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  • TOKURO MIZUSHINA, RYUZO ITO, SHINICHI KODA, AKIHIRO KABASHIMA, SETSURO ...
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 160-164
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The heat transfer under solidification of lauric and capric acids on the cooling wall of an agitated vessel is studied, and the over-all and convective heat transfer coefficients, respectively, are measured and correlated with the impeller Reynolds number. The over-all heat transfer coefficient decreases sharply as depositing solid layer forms, but the convective heat transfer coefficient is well correlated by the already reported correlation equation independently of existence of solid layer. That is, the convective heat transfer coefficient in the vessel with solid layer coincides with that in the vessel without solid layer.
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  • YOICHI NAGASE, MITSUHIRO KIKUCHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 164-166
    Published: April 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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