JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 44 , Issue 8
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
Editorial Note
  • 2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages edit_8
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Editor-in-Chief:
    Hiroyuki Honda (Nagoya University)

    Associate Editors-in-Chiefs:
    Manabu Shimada (Hiroshima University)
    Takao Tsukada (Tohoku University)

    Editors:
    Ryuichi Egashira (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
    Jun Fukai (Kyushu University)
    Choji Fukuhara (Shizuoka University)
    Takayuki Hirai (Osaka University)
    Masahiko Hirao (The University of Tokyo)
    Jun-ichi Horiuchi (Kitami Institute of Technology)
    Eiji Iritani (Nagoya University)
    Yoshinori Itaya (Gifu University)
    Hideo Kameyama (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
    Masahiro Kino-oka (Osaka University)
    Toshinori Kojima (Seikei University)
    In-Beum Lee (Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTEC))
    Shin Mukai (Hokkaido University)
    Akinori Muto (Osaka Prefecture University)
    Nobuyoshi Nakagawa (Gunma University)
    Hiroyasu Ogino (Osaka Prefecture University)
    Naoto Ohmura (Kobe University)
    Mitsuhiro Ohta (Muroran Institute of Technology)
    Hiroshi Ooshima (Osaka City University)
    Yuji Sakai (Kogakuin University)
    Noriaki Sano (Kyoto University)
    Masahiro Shishido (Yamagata University)
    Richard Lee Smith, Jr. (Tohoku University)
    Hiroshi Suzuki (Kobe University)
    Shigeki Takishima (Hiroshima University)
    Yoshifumi Tsuge (Kyushu University)
    Tomoya Tsuji (Nihon University)
    Da-Ming Wang (National Taiwan University)
    Yoshiyuki Yamashita (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
    Miki Yoshimune (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST))

    Editorial office:
    The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan
    Kyoritsu Building, 4-6-19, Kohinata, Bunkyo-ku
    Tokyo 112-0006, Japan
    journal@scej.org

    AIMS AND SCOPE:

    Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, an official publication of the Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan, is dedicated to providing timely original research results in the broad field of chemical engineering ranging from fundamental principles to practical applications. Subject areas of this journal are listed below. Research works presented in the journal are considered to have significant and lasting value in chemical engineering.

    Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry
    Transport Phenomena and Fluid Engineering
    Particle Engineering
    Separation Engineering
    Thermal Engineering
    Chemical Reaction Engineering
    Process Systems Engineering and Safety
    Biochemical Food and Medical Engineering
    Micro and Nano Systems
    Materials Engineering and Interfacial Phenomena
    Energy
    Environment
    Engineering Education
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Particle Engineering
  • Shigeru Kimoto, Kiyoko Mizota, Motoaki Adachi
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Particle Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 535-545
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    A Mixing-type Bipolar Charger using Corona-discharge at High Pressure (MBCCHP) is subjected to both theoretical and experimental evaluation. In theoretical studies, the charging model for the MBCCHP is developed to determine the influences of the residence time tR, the number ratio of negative ions to positive ions N/N+, and the number ratio of particles to bipolar ions n0/NB (where NB = N+ + N) on the charge distribution. The charge distribution recorded experimentally at various values of n0/NB and N/N+ is compared with theoretical results. The comparisons indicate that the theoretical results can be used to adequately explain well the experimental data. Both sets of results demonstrate that the MBCCHP is capable of generating equilibrium charge distributions of aerosol particles within errors of 10%. The diameter of the particles ranges between 10–500 nm and the particle number concentration n0 is less than 3.0 × 1012 m−3 under operating conditions of 0.5 > tR > 0.1 s, with a frequency >100 Hz, a voltage of 9.0 kV0–p, and a high-pressure ionizer operating at 0.4 MPa.
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Separation Engineering
  • Noriaki Sano, Yusuke Ikeyama, Hajime Tamon
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Separation Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 546-554
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: June 03, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    To date, particle separation using dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been intensively investigated for small-scale operations mainly for bioapplications and nanoapplications. However, methods for expanding a DEP separator to large scale have not yet been established. In this study, an easily expandable wetted-wall DEP separator is proposed, and experiments to capture TiO2 particles in ethanol and separate TiO2 from a mixture with SiO2 are conducted. During the separation of TiO2 from the mixture with SiO2, the selectivity for capturing TiO2 reached about 90%; however, admixing of SiO2 negatively influenced this selectivity. Based on the experimental results, several equations are proposed to correlate the operating conditions with the saturated amount of TiO2 captured by this separator. Since scaling up of the present separator can be conducted based on numbering up, the proposed equations for predicting the amount of particles captured per electrode pair will be useful for estimating the required separator size.
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Thermal Engineering
  • Ting Gao, Wensheng Lin, Wei Liu, Anzhong Gu, Yanke Qi
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Thermal Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 555-560
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Coal-bed methane (CBM) is an important energy resource globally, and liquefaction is a good option for the recovery of CBM. Unlike ordinary natural gas, CBM usually contains a substantial proportion of nitrogen, which cannot be removed by ordinary purification technologies of liquefied natural gas engineering. Nitrogen can be separated from CBM by distillation after liquefaction, which is an efficient separation technology. A novel process that integrates liquefaction and distillation is proposed in this paper. In this process, a nitrogen expansion cycle is used to provide cold energy for both the liquefaction process and the condenser in the distillation column, and the cooling capacity of the re-boiler in the distillation column is used to cool CBM. The cold enriched nitrogen gas released from the top of the distillation column is introduced into the liquefaction process to recover its cold energy, while the enriched methane from the bottom of the distillation column is introduced into the liquefaction process to be further cooled, and thus liquefied natural gas at atmospheric pressure is produced. For CBM with a nitrogen content between 10 and 70%, the parameters of this integrated process are optimized to minimize the system unit power consumption. The corresponding system performance, including unit power consumption, product purity and methane recovery rate, is compared and analyzed for CBM with different nitrogen contents.
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  • Jae-Kwan Kim, Hyun-Dong Lee
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Thermal Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 561-571
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: March 02, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    The aim of this study is to predict the combustion possibility of dry sewage sludge used as a blended fuel in commercial anthracite-fired plants. The combustion characteristics of various sludge blends prepared on the basis of design anthracite coal were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and drop-tube furnace (DTF). The TGA results showed that the volatiles components in dry sludge burned more rapidly those in anthracite. The sludge mainly comprised two organic fractions with different reactivities; the more reactive fraction decomposed and burned at a lower temperature than that of anthracite in the case of sludge blends with a blending ratio of less than 15 wt%, and the burning temperature were closer to those of anthracite. In sludge blends with a blending ratio of more than 20%, interactions were observed between the anthracite and sludge components. The Arrhenius kinetic parameters were calculated from the experimental results, by considering the process as a series of consecutive first-order reactions. Addition of low quantities of sludge (blending ratio <15%) hardly brought about any improvement in the coal activation energy. Activation energies for the overall combustion of anthracite and sludge were 75.380 and 17.410 kJ/mol, respectively. The activation energies for the combustion of 30% and 50% sludge blends were 20.951 and 15.140 kJ/mol, respectively, and they were inversely proportional to the volatile matter content and sludge blending ratio. The DTF test results showed that the volatile content of the sludge significantly improved the combustion efficiency of the sludge blends, whereas the unburned carbon in combustion by-product reduced. The conversion behaviors of the anthracite, sludge, and the sludge blends observed in DTF tests were similar to those reflected in TGA. DTF char studies showed that sludge blends were higher conversion rates than did anthracite coal, because of porous char formation; most of the sludge blends underwent complete combustion at residence time of 1 s and at 1,100°C as in the case of commercial coal-fired plant. In the case of the sludge blends with blending ratios of less than 30%, the high initial deformation temperature (IDT) of the sludge ashes was not expected to be associated with slagging and fouling in pulverized coal-fired systems.
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Chemical Reaction Engineering
  • Nga Thi Anh Nguyen, Masashi Ichikawa, Shinsuke Mori, Masaaki Suzuki
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Chemical Reaction Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 572-576
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: May 25, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Nitrogen isotope separation using plasma chemical reactions in N2–O2 glow discharge has been investigated with a DC power supply being used to generate the glow discharge. In this study, the effects of parameters such as oxygen concentration, discharge pressure and discharge current on this process are studied experimentally. We determined that the separation factor correlates strongly with the discharge current, of which the optimum value is 0.4 mA for the highest separation factor of β = 1.57. The conversion of nitrogen increases with increases in the discharge current and oxygen concentration. The conversion of oxygen is found to have a value of nearly 100% and almost all of the oxygen input was converted into ozone molecules. The electron density also is estimated and its influence on the isotope separation is discussed. The results of this experimental study correlate with those of the theoretical study in literature concerning the relationship between electron density and separation factor.
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  • Pengyu Wang, Kazuya Kobiro
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Chemical Reaction Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 577-582
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: February 15, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    This study investigates the use of subcritical water in cross-aldol reactions containing both organic materials, benzaldehyde/acetone and acetophenone/1,3,5-trioxane, and an inorganic material, ZnCl2. The results are compared to those obtained under solvent-free conditions. It is found that water suppresses the loss of organic materials and accelerates the formation of cross-aldol reaction products. Satisfactory yields (46–63%) were obtained with ZnCl2.
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  • Yingying Cheng, Takayuki Watanabe
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Chemical Reaction Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 583-589
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: May 20, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    An experimental study has been conducted for TiB and TiB2 nanoparticle fabrication by radio frequency induction plasmas. TiB and TiB2 nanoparticles were selected as the model for the investigation. In the thermal plasma, the mixed powders of titanium with boron were evaporated immediately and nanoparticles were produced through the cooling process. The parameters of powder feed rate and boron content in the feed powders played an important role in the formation of boride nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized based on phase composition in the product and crystalline diameter. The nanoparticles of TiB and TiB2 nanoparticles had an average crystalline diameter from 10 to 45 nm. The diameter of TiB was smaller than that of TiB2. The mass fraction of TiB had the range from 0 to 99.58%. These results suggest that boride nanoparticles can be produced by induction thermal plasma and also that the crystalline diameter and composition were controllable.
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  • Hideo Nagata, Naomi Nakamura, Haruki Mori
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Chemical Reaction Engineering
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 590-595
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: March 17, 2011
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    Alumina–zirconia catalysts for carrying out the hydrolysis of chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115) were prepared from boemite and γ-alumina, and their deactivation was investigated. On the basis of the characterization results for fresh and used catalysts, catalyst deactivation was attributed to poisoning by fluoride ions, which decreased the acidity of the catalysts. The deactivation of alumina–zirconia catalysts prepared from boemite decreased with increasing alumina content, while the deactivation of alumina–zirconia catalysts prepared from γ-alumina was found to be independent of the alumina content. As the alumina–zirconia catalysts prepared from boemite had two types of acidity, it is suggested that the two types of acidity may be different in the catalyst deactivation for the hydrolysis of CFC-115.
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Process Systems Engineering and Safety
  • Srinivasan Uma, Ambati Seshagiri Rao, JeongTai Kim, ChangKyoo Yoo
    Type: Research Paper
    Subject area: Process Systems Engineering and Safety
    2011 Volume 44 Issue 8 Pages 596-607
    Published: August 20, 2011
    Released: August 20, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: March 29, 2011
    JOURNALS RESTRICTED ACCESS
    Modified Smith predictor based parallel cascade control strategy is proposed for enhanced control of non-self regulating processes involving time delays. Modified Smith predictor is integrated in the primary loop of the parallel cascade control structure to enhance the closed loop performance. The proposed structures consist of two control loops, a secondary inner loop and a primary outer loop. The secondary loop controller is designed using the internal model control (IMC) method. Then, the primary loop controllers are designed after identifying the overall primary process model. The primary loop has two controllers meant for set point tracking and good disturbance rejection and designed using direct synthesis method. The primary set point tracking controller is designed as a PID with lag filter and the primary disturbance rejection controller is designed as a PID with lead-lag filter. For comparison, a simple parallel cascade control is also applied to non-self regulating time delay processes. Simulation studies have been carried out on various unstable and integrating processes. The proposed method provides enhanced closed loop performances compared to that of simple parallel cascade control.
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