JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 26 , Issue 6
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
Original Papers
  • Cheng-Chung Huang, Chien-Song Chyang
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 607-614
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The behavior of multiple spouts above a perforated plate in a 400 mm × 15 mm two-dimensional bed of glass beads with mean diameters from 214 μm to 1095 μm was investigated. The operation of the perforated-plate distributor was taken into account while phase diagrams for the 2-D bed of glass beads were mapped. Two types of incoherent spouting were observed. The stability of multiple spouts was affected by bed height, superficial gas velocity, particle size and distributor design.
    Download PDF (2863K)
  • Yoshiyuki Yamashita, Masayoshi Kuwashima, Toshiyuki Nonaka, Mutsumi Su ...
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 615-619
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For on-line monitoring of cell size distribution and concentration in a fermentor, a sampling system was developed with a counting algorithm for cells. A digitized microscopic image of yeasts is analyzed based on the Hough transformation, and spherical cells are detected. Then the number of cells and the cell size distribution are calculated. The proposed method was applied to a monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and confirmed the method’s validity.
    Download PDF (4962K)
  • W. S. Wu, G. P. Rangaiah
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 620-626
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is well known that electrolytic gas generation at electrodes in an electrochemical reactor can affect ohmic resistance, dispersion and mass transfer in the cell. Many published studies of these phenomena employed electrodes of a few cm in size. In this work, experiments were conducted to study oxygen evolution and mass transfer at both vertical and horizontal microelectrodes of 0.05 to 5 mm in diameter. Electrode orientation was found to have some effect on oxygen evolution, mainly at higher gas evolution. When there was mass transfer with co-evolution of oxygen at larger microelectrodes, generally higher mass transfer coefficients were observed in vertical than in horizontal position. However, orientation had no effect in the case of microelectrodes smaller than 0.5 mm. Also, mass transfer diminished drastically at gas current density ≥300 mA cm–2 due to single-bubble shielding of the electrode surface completely. Experiments on single-bubble generation at a 0.05 mm microelectrode showed that bubble generation could be regular under certain conditions. Relatively smaller bubbles formed more frequently at a vertical than a horizontal electrode. Results of mass transfer enhancement by passing gas bubbles confirm that this effect at microelectrodes too is smaller than the enhancement due to co-evolution of gas.
    Download PDF (1140K)
  • Hojin Ryu, Kazumasa Sugiyama, Eiki Kasai, Daisuke Shindo, Fumio Saito
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 627-632
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of mixed grinding of Y2O3, BaCO3 and CuO powders using a planetary ball mill before heat treatment of the crystal structure and the superconducting properties of the sintered body has been investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM-EDX, EELS, and measurement of the critical temperature and critical current density.
    The size reduction of powders predominates in the early stage of grinding, after which aggregation of the obtained fine particles takes place. The homogeneity in the mixture is improved with increase in grinding time. The critical current density of the sintered body changes with increase in grinding time of the mixture and reaches maximum value at 60 minutes grinding, while the critical temperature is almost independent of grinding time.
    Download PDF (5826K)
  • Yuji Sano, Shuichi Yamamoto
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 633-636
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mutual diffusion coefficient of aqueous solutions with sugars of various molecular weight, obtained by drying experiment of the solution, was investigated for the effects of concentration, temperature and molecular weight of sugar.
    The mutual diffusion coefficient of dilute solution was correlated using Wilke’s diffusion factor. The concentration dependence was presented by linear relation of the logarithm of the diffusion coefficient vs. the sugar mole fraction regardless of temperature. The slopes of the linear relations were expressed by a power function of the molecular weight. From the linear relation, the activation energy was expressed also by linear relation of the sugar mole fraction, in which the slopes were expressed by the other power function of the molecular weight. The resultant estimation equation covers well for the temperature range 298–323 K and for the molecular weight range of sugars, from 180 for glucose to 6100 for maltodextrin.
    Download PDF (484K)
  • Kenji Okada, Shinji Shibano, Yasuharu Akagi
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 637-643
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Turbulent properties of the bubble flow region in an airlift bubble column were examined using an anemometer for water and CMC solutions. The turbulent structures of the gas-liquid system in these liquids were evaluated by the power spectrum of turbulent eddies. The power spectrums of the liquids decayed with decrease in the size of eddies with a slope of –5/3 to –2. This is almost comparable to that of Kolmogoroff’s spectrum law for an isotropic turbulence. The radial distributions of turbulent intensity, ul, macro-scale of turbulent eddies, Λf, bubble diameter, dB, and bubble rise velocity, uB, were measured. The influence of the media on these properties was examined. The turbulent viscosity, νt, was evaluated from the values of ul, and Λf for the liquids. It was found that νt of gas-liquid two-phase flow was five times higher than that of a single-phase flow of water. Using these turbulent properties, the liquid superficial velocity, UL, slip velocity of bubble, uBS, and bubble diameter (Sauter diameter), dBS, in the riser were estimated theoretically. The estimated values agreed with those obtained experimentally.
    Download PDF (966K)
  • Takeshi Kataoka, Akinori Muto, Tadaaki Nishiki
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 644-648
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The equilibrium relation between mixed cation and anion exchange resins and a dilute salt in water are investigated. Considering the equilibrium characteristic values of each ion exchange and also the mixed-volume fraction of both resins, equilibrium equations are derived on the basis of both cation and anion exchange reactions and the neutralization reaction between H+ and OH eluted from the resins. When both resins are mixed in equal equivalence for ion exchange, the equilibrium relation becomes a rectangular isotherm and is not affected by a concentration of a salt, ionic valence of species composing the salt, or the equilibrium constants of both ion exchanges. When mixed in unequal equivalence, the deionization equilibrium is influenced by the above factors. Especially, the effect of the mixed volume fraction on the equilibrium relationships depends greatly on the valence of ions composing the salt.
    The experimental results using aqueous NaCl solution showed good agreement with the calculated ones.
    Download PDF (594K)
  • Shin-ichi Nishizawa, Akira Hirata
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 649-655
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of interfacial velocity on interfacial momentum, heat and mass transfer through a gas-liquid interface were quantitatively investigated. The rates of momentum, heat and mass transfer depend not only on the magnitude of the interfacial velocity but also on the change of acceleration in interfacial velocity.
    In addition, by considering the interfacial tension gradient to be the cause of interfacial acceleration, the effect of the interfacial tension gradient on interfacial velocity, interfacial momentum, heat and mass transfer were also quantitatively investigated. Both the interfacial velocity and the rates of momentum, heat and mass transfer depend not only on the magnitude of the interfacial tension gradient but also on the change of interfacial tension.
    Download PDF (780K)
  • Takahiro Kawakatsu, Shin-ichi Nakao, Shoji Kimura
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 656-661
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In crossfiow microfiltration (CMF) of a suspension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a dense layer called a “dynamic membrane” was formed with elastic compression at the interface of the membrane surface and the cake layer, and was found to reject bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Dextran T70 (T70). This macromolecule rejection corresponded to the blocking resistance (Rb), and was dependent on the actual surface pore size (dm), the particle size in suspension (dp) and the particle compressibility. With S. cerevisiae, when dm at 0.5 μm was about one-tenth of dp (2–5 μm), the T70 rejection rate increased to 80% even if dm was large compared to the size of T70. The membrane surface was observed with scanning electron microscopy and it was confirmed that a dense layer with compressed cells and biopolymers surrounding the cell was formed on the surface. On the other hand, the T70 rejection was not observed with the cake layer of polymethyl methacrylate particles (dp: 0.8 μm) because the particle was incompressible and no dense layer was formed.
    Download PDF (3107K)
  • Minoru Seki, Ken-ichiro Naito, Shintaro Furusaki
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 662-668
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cell growth and reaction characteristics within cell-immobilizing particles were investigated using the ethanol production system by Zymomonas mobilis to clarify the effect of mass-transfer resistance caused by cell growth on the overall reactivity of the immobilizing particles. For the immobilization of growing cells, the cell concentration at each position in the immobilizing particle increases monotonously with time, and after a certain period of cultivation the cell distribution and overall production rate reached steady state. However, the non-monotonous change with a peak of the production rate was observed with the elapse of time in the transient state. A novel method is proposed to restrict the overgrowth and consequently to enhance overall productivity in the steady state of the immobilized-cell biocatalyst, i.e., co-immobilization of microporous solid particles with growing cells. Also, a method to estimate the extent of the influence of co-immobilization of microporous particles was demonstrated, using a mathematical model.
    Download PDF (3140K)
  • Jyh-Ping Chen, Jin-Te Jen
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 669-675
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Aqueous two-phase systems consisting of dextran and hydroxypropyidextran (HPD) were used in protein partition studies. The phase diagram of such systems was determined by fluorescein-labelled dextran or HPD. The phase envelope was close to symmetrical, consistent with the Flory-Huggins theory for polymer solutions owing to the similarities between the two phase-forming polymers. A new mathematical model for affinity partition was developed. Simulation results from this model indicated that the ratio of dissociation constant of protein-ligand complex to total ligand concentration should be lower than 10–3, and the ratio of total protein concentration to total ligand concentration should be kept below 1 to get the best partition results. Partitions of pepsin, chymosin, and Endothia parasitica protease were studied in affinity dextran/HPD aqueous two-phase systems with pepstatin attached to dextran as the ligand. The proteins strongly preferred the bottom phase into which the pepstatyl-dextran segregated. Data from the partition experiments can be satisfactorily correlated with the model developed. Purification of chymosin was carried out in this affinity system with a five-step liquid-liquid extraction. The purification factor was 6.2 with a yield of 83%.
    Download PDF (1171K)
  • Tadafumi Adschiri, Satoru Hirose, Roberto Malaluan, Kunio Arai
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 676-680
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes the noncatalytic conversion of cellulose in supercritical and subcritical water. First, it was demonstrated that even without any acid catalyst, cellulose was rapidly converted to water soluble species with a relatively high glucose yield in near critical water and glucose yield increased with elevating temperature. Then the rate constants for cellulose decomposition and glucose decomposition were evaluated at a pressure of 25 MPa over a temperature ranging from 473 K to 673 K by using semi-batch reactor and a flow reactor, respectively. From the reported cellulose pyrolysis rate constant and the evaluated cellulose decomposition rate constant, cellulose hydrolysis rate constant was evaluated. By using the cellulose hydrolysis rate, cellulose pyrolysis rate and the glucose decomposition rate, glucose yield obtained in the semi-batch experiment was reasonably explained.
    Download PDF (2417K)
  • Tadahiro Murakata, Xiao-Bing Liu, Shimio Sato
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 681-685
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Lipase was entrapped in poly-N-isopropylacrylamide gel beads which underwent thermally induced phase transition. Catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme in the gel beads (IEG) was studied for esterification in organic medium and, for comparison, hydrolysis in aqueous medium. The activity of IEG changed significantly before and after the phase transition. The esterification activity leapt up with the phase transition at which the gel altered from swollen to shrunken state, whereas the hydrolysis activity fell. The esterification activity change was thought to be caused by change in the amount of environmental water in and around the IEG. To clarify the effect of environmental water on the esterification activity, four IEGs, different in their state and amount of environmental water, were employed for the esterification, and their activities were compared. IEG was most active when it shrunk and was surrounded with a suitable amount of water.
    Download PDF (744K)
  • Korekazu Ueyama, Takuya Ono, Masahiko Matsukata, Ryuichiro Osima
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 686-691
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) based on a monodisperse model was applied to ultrafine particle formation in a flame where particles grow and deform within several ms, with occasional high number density and broad size distribution. DLS was experimentally evaluated as an in-situ technique of measuring mean particle size by comparing with TEM (transmission electron microscope) photographs. The following results were obtained.
    1. For particles formed in a flame, a mean particle size of several tens of nanometers by DLS with monodisperse assumption was in good agreement with the volume mean diameter obtained from TEM photographs, except for particles strongly deviated to small size.
    2. For particles with a size distribution strongly deviated to the fine side, DLS with monodisperse assumption gives a considerably large value, around twice the volume mean diameter. This value still reflects a plausible mean size of large particles contained in the measuring volume.
    Download PDF (5755K)
  • Hidekazu Yoshizawa, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Yoshinobu Kawano, Yasuo Hatate
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 692-697
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Regeneration of microcapsules was carried out by stripping the extracted propionic acid with distilled water and aqueous NaOH solution based on data obtained for a liquid-liquid system. Concerning the stripping behavior with distilled water, the stripping reactions can be successfully expressed as the reverse formula of the extraction reactions. The stripping ratio was found to be a function of the concentrations of the extracted propionic acid in organic solution and the propionic acid in aqueous solution at equilibrium. For aqueous NaOH solution, on the other hand, the stripping could be expressed by the following stoichiometric reaction in the organic solution in both the liquid-liquid and the microcapsule systems.

    (HA) B (HA)n–1 + nNaOH = B + nNaA + nH2O

    Perfect stripping was achieved when the molar ratio of NaOH to propionic acid was larger than unity.
    The microcapsule extraction system showed the same extraction capacity after repetitive extraction and stripping of propionic acid.
    Download PDF (875K)
  • Takao Tsukada, Tetsuya Katayama, Yukikazu Ito, Mitsunori Hozawa
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 698-703
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A finite element computational technique has been developed for exactly calculating circulations inside and outside a dielectric drop suspended in another dielectric fluid under a uniform electric fifeld. This technique allows the prediction of not only the circulations but also drop deformation caused by electric and dynamic forces acting over the drop surface. Computed results show that the direction of the circulations and the drop deformation depend on physical properties of the fluids, especially the drop-to-medium ratios of electric conductivity and dielectric constant. These results are in good agreement with Taylor’s analytical solutions and authors’ experimental observations.
    Download PDF (5107K)
  • Akira Matsuda, Hikaru Yuzaki, Daisuke Omori, Kenji Kawasaki
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 704-708
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments on batch aerobic digestion in continuous aeration were carried out by using activated sludges acclimated to synthetic wastewater of glucose and peptone at various sludge ages. As sludge age decreased, VSS decreased quickly with the progress of digestion and the ratio of maximum VSS reduction to initial VSS increased, but VSS/SS was kept constant. The decomposition rate of sludge was proportional to the biodegradable VSS, and its proportional constant (rate constant of decomposition) increased as sludge age decreased. The oxygen uptake rate of sludge was related to the decomposition rate of sludge by using a reaction model where the composition of activated sludge cell was C5H7NO2. Moreover, the SVI of sludge increased with the progress of digestion, but the final SVI was within the range of good settleability.
    Download PDF (772K)
  • Ken-ichi Suga, Tomoko Sorai, Suteaki Shioya, Fumihiro Ishimura
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 709-714
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Phenylacefic acid, an inhibitory product, was formed through the hydrolysis of penicillin G by immobilized penicillin acylase. In this study, electrodialysis was applied to remove phenylacetic acid continuously from the reaction mixture and to enhance the efficiency of the reaction.
    The permeation rate of phenylacetic acid, in this electrodialysis system was found to be much faster than those of two other compounds, penicillin G and 6-aminopenicillanic acid. Therefore, the membranes selected here might be suitable for continuous removal of phenylacefic acid from the reaction mixture for penicillin G hydrolysis. However, the permeation rate of phenylacetic acid was significantly influenced by the penicillin G concentration; it decreased with increasing penicillin G concentration. A theoretical model was developed to describe this phenomenon and was applied to the hydrolysis of penicillin G by means of a combination of immobilized penicillin acylase and electro dialysis. The experimental data were compared to those predicted by a model using independently determined parameters such as the Michaelis constant, inhibition constants and permeation rate constants. Fairly good agreement was found between the theoretical and experimental data. When a 100 mol·m–3 penicillin G solution was used as the substrate, the time required to reach 98% conversion could be reduced to 24.7% by using the combination with electrodialysis.
    Download PDF (4181K)
  • Katsuroku Takahashi, Susumu Nii, Keiji Nakanishi, Hiroshi Takeuchi
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 715-719
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Stage efficiency of a mixer-settler extraction column which could realize a larger throughput at a higher agitation speed was measured with a three-stage column for the extraction of iodine from aqueous phase into heptane. The efficiency increased monotonously with agitation speed; i.e., high-stage efficiency could be obtained as well as a large throughput at a high agitation speed with the extraction column. The stage efficiency based on the dispersed-phase concentration varied with the ratio of slopes between the equilibrium line and the operating line. The overall height of a transfer unit transformed from the stage efficiency was divided into the heights of a transfer unit of the dispersed and the continuous phases, which were correlated with the agitation speed.
    Download PDF (742K)
  • Daiqing Zhao, Takeshi Sakai
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 720-727
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using hydrogen and liquid petroleum gas, diffusion flames from an internal mixing nozzle, I.M.N., have been investigated experimentally and compared with those from a circular tube nozzle, C.T.N. When compared with C.T.N. flames, the I.M.N. flame length is shorter, the ignition distance is reduced, the blow-off velocity is higher and the flame is more stable on the whole.
    The chemical species distribution within the flames from both I.M.N. and C.T.N. has been analyzed. The results of the chemical analysis are discussed, considering what would be expected from our earlier fluid dynamical investigations. Improvement of the flame characteristics results from the intense turbulence within the jets just after ejection from the I.M.N. port. This intense turbulence is generated within the mixing chamber of the I.M.N., which promotes the transfer properties between the flame jet and the ambient air.
    Download PDF (3042K)
  • Mohammed Zohdi Anabtawi
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 728-732
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hydrodynamic studies in a bidimensional spout-fluidized bed was conducted using four materials of seven particle sizes spout-fluidized with air. Four nozzles of different diameters were used and their effect on minimum spouting velocity, minimum spout-fluidizing velocity and maximum spoutable bed height were determined. Three correlations, for predicting the minimum spouting velocity, minimum spout-fluidized velocity and maximum spoutable bed depth, were developed and compared with corresponding equations in the literature.
    Download PDF (695K)
  • Akihiro Kataoka, Woijciech Nowak, Takashi Ihara, Hitoki Matsuda, Masan ...
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 733-737
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The application of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) as a gas burner is presented and discussed. The main area of this study is concerned with hydrodynamics, flame stability and temperature distributions of a CFB burner equipped with an internal nozzle burner in the bottom of the riser. Several kinds of solids are tested by changing such operational and design parameters as the ratio of air and fuel flow from the internal nozzle burner to the total flow, the solid circulation rate and the pre-heating temperature of solid particles. The hydrodynamics and flammable region are made clear and the circulation of particles has a significant effect on the bed temperature and temperature gradient in the combustion chamber.
    Download PDF (739K)
  • Jerzy Baldyga, John R. Bourne
    1993 Volume 26 Issue 6 Pages 738-741
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 31, 2005
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recent studies on the fine structure of turbulent flow are applied to drop breakup in the inertial sub-range. A multifractal method describes intermittency and the distribution of velocity fluctuations etc. For a given drop size and a given time-averaged energy dissipation rate, a wide range of stresses acts to cause breakup. These stresses and their relative frequencies are calculated. The most likely exponent on the Weber Number is close to –0.6. Smaller values (possibly as low as –0.93) arise from rare, but violent intermittent turbulence. Such low exponents are likely after long agitation times and for small tanks.
    Download PDF (613K)
Short Communications
Prompt Paper
feedback
Top