JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 7 , Issue 2
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • KAZUO KOJIMA, KENJI OGHI
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 71-75
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A procedure for screening the solvent for extractive distillation by use only of the bubble point data, which can be easily measured experimentally, is proposed. In this procedure, the bubble point data for a given ternary system and the related binary systems are used to calculate activity coefficients in liquid phase at the ternary infinite dilution and binary activity coefficients, which are combined to determine the relationship between the relative volatility and the solvent concentration. The calculation results are illustrated for two isobaric ternary systems at 1 atm, ethanol-isopropanol -water and acetone-methanol-water.
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  • TERUO TAKAHASHI, TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, KENGO SHIMIZU
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 75-80
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the previous work, the vertical distribution of the gas void fraction, the froth height and the mean gas liquid fraction ratio have been clarified theoretically for low clear-liquid height on a perforated plate under liquid stagnant flow.
    In this work, in order to make sure of these theoretical results, experimental studies were performed in the air-water system. It was found that the theoretical values of the vertical distribution of gas void fraction and froth height agreed well with experimental values. Though the theoretical value of the mean gas liquid fraction ratio agrees with the experimental values better than do those obtained by Azbel and Kim, it does not always agree with the experimental values in a wide range of Froude number. Therefore, the empirical equations for the critical Froude number and the mean gas liquid fraction ratio in each region were obtained.
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  • NOBUYUKI IMAISHI, KATSUHIKO FUJIKAWA
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 81-87
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    An analytical study of the stability of horizontal two-fluid layers encountered by interphasial mass transfer is reported. A linear stability analysis for two immiscible viscous, initially motionless fluids, confined between horizontal solid walls of constant concentrations and subjected to both the Rayleigh and the Marangoni driving mechanisms, is presented.
    The effect of interfacial contamination is also involved.
    Stability criteria for the cases of transfer of acetone or acetic acid through benzenewater interface are presented.
    As for acetic acid, instability is predicted for either direction of transfer, showing the importance of the Rayleigh driving mechanism. It relaxes the discrepancy between experimental results and the theoretical result of the purely Marangoni effect model of Stemling and Scriven.
    Stability criteria are strongly dependent on the ratios of properties of fluids, the total depth, and also the depth ratio of layers and the presence of interfacial contaminant.
    This analysis is readily applicable to predicting the stability of two-fluid layers encountered by heat transfer.
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  • NOBUYUKI IMAISHI, KATSUHIKO FUJINAWA
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 87-92
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    An analytical and experimental study of thermally induced instability in horizontal two-fluid layers is reported. The earlier reported linear stability analysis is applied to predict the stability criteria of benzene-water and water-carbon tetrachloride layers. Calculations predict instability in benzene-water layers of whatever depth ratio of layers for heating from above or below, but only for heating from below in equi-depth water-carbon tetrachloride layers.
    Results of experimental measurements of the critical Rayleigh and Marangoni numbers in these two-fluid layers of various total depths, heated from below, confirm the consistency of the theory both in clean and contaminated systems.
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  • MASASHI ASAEDA, SHIGEYUKI YONEDA, RYOZO TOEI
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 93-98
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    An analytical expression for the permeability of gases through packed beds of spherical particles in the Knudsen region is obtained from the kinetic theory of gases by using the two-sided Maxwellian velocity distribution functions and Maxwell''s transport equation.
    The results of the theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results for beds of spherical particles and also for beds of nonspherical particles, if the equivalent diameters of the particles are properly determined.
    For other regions, it was found convenient to introduce the Knudsen number, defined as the ratio of the number of molecule-particle collisions to that of intermolecular collisions. By using this Knudsen number, the mechanisms of flow of gases through packed beds can be successfully classified just as are those for circular tubes.
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  • MORIO OKAZAKI, KATASHI SHIODA, KEIZO MASUDA, RYOZO TOEI
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 99-105
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Drying of coated film of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) aqueous solution is studied theoretically and experimentally, focusing on the diffusion process of water and the volumetric shrinkage of film occurring by evaporation of water. The diffusion coefficients were measured over the whole range of concentration by three methods, and drying experiments of coated films using hot air were performed. Numerical solutions were obtained from a set of transport equations for water using the observed diffusion coefficients and were compared with the experimental results.
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, HIROYUKI YOSHIDA, HIDEO SANADA
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 105-109
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Resin-phase diffusivity in isotopic ion exchange was measured by the single-particle method.
    The effect of resin diameter, the degree of crosslinking and the concentration and valence of ionic species on resin-phase diffusivity were studied with a macroscopic model by which the diffusivity may be predicted. From these results, the estimating equation of resin-phase diffusivity for sulfonated styrene type resin in the range of the degree of crosslinking 3-16% was obtained.
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  • HIDEO NODA, SETSUJI TONE, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 110-116
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In isopentane dehydrogenation over chroniia-alumina catalyst, the conversion of isopentane and the yield of isopentenes decreased rapidly with process time while that of isoprene did so very slowly.
    Coke deposition on catalyst and catalyst fouling occurred in an integral catalytic reactor, and coke distribution was observed along the axial direction of the reactor. For isopentane dehydrogenation a kinetic model in which the main reaction was consecutive and the sub-reaction was parallel is proposed. For estimating distributed kinetic parameters with catalyst fouling, an algorithm that involves two calculating steps is introduced. Applying an activity factor which accounts for catalyst fouling and which is a linear function of coke content, the kinetic parameters were estimated. Using these parameters, the changes of the concentration and the distribution of coke content with process time were simulated fairly well.
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  • KENJI HASHIMOTO, MASAAKI TERAMOTO, KAZUHISA MIYAMOTO, TOSHIO TADA, SHI ...
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 116-122
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An internal-recycle catalytic reactor is described which can be operated under perfectly mixed conditions. The reactor is suitable for evaluating intraparticle mass transfer effects on reaction rate and yield in the consecutive hydrogenation of mesityl oxide over a copper-chromium oxide catalyst. The reactor has the advantages that accurate reaction rates are directly obtained, and that mathematical formulation is simpler than with an integral reactor. Effective diffusivities are determined from conversion data and compared with those calculated by a parallel-pore model and a random-pore model. The effective diffusivities predicted by both models closely agree with each other, and these values are close to those experimentally determined. The tortuosity factors determined from the parallel-pore model range from 1.4 to 3.4. These values fall within the range of previously published values. The calculated conversion and yield show relatively good agreement with the experimental results.
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  • KAKUJI TOJO, KEI MIYANAMI, TAKEO YANO
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 123-126
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The gas holdup and pressure drop of a multistage vibrating disk column with cocurrent gas-liquid flow are measured and the effects of column geometry and operating variables are determined for the evaluation of column performance.
    Among the operating variables, the vibrating speed of the disks Av (amplitude A multipled by vibrating frequency v) has a definite effect on the gas holdup and pressure drop at speeds higher than a certain critical speed Avr. At speeds lower than Avc, disk vibration has little effect on gas holdup and pressure drop.
    The gas holdup and pressure drop are correlated successfully by the addition of increased values due to disk vibration to those in the absence of vibration.
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  • KAKUJI TOJO, KEI MIYANAMI, TAKEO YANO
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 126-130
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mass transfer characteristics of a cocurrent multistage vibrating disk column are studied by the absorption of pure carbon dioxide into water. Axial mixing in the liquid phase is taken into account by using a back-flow model.
    Disk vibration definitely enhances the mass transfer rate at low gas velocity and high liquid velocity. On the other hand, at high gas velocity and low liquid velocity, disk vibration does not noticeably improve the mass transfer characteristics, and even worsens them in some cases.
    The increase in absorption rate by disk vibration can be well estimated by information on the gas holdup characteristics, the mass transfer characteristics without vibration, the gas bubble size data and the axial mixing characteristics in the liquid phase.
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  • HIROSHI TSUNAKAWA, RYUIGHI AOKI
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 131-134
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    The lateral pressures exerted by a granular material on the cylindrical walls of a bin are expressed by Janssen''s formula. The pressures during filling vary greatly with filling rates because of impact loads. On the other hand, the pressures during -mass flow are larger than those during filling and are independent of Sow rates. The flow properties of granular materials are determined in a mass flow state using a small-scale model bin. These values are applicable to estimate the lateral pressures in a full-sized silo.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TOSHIRO MURASE, HIROMITSU MORIDERA, MIGHINORI URYU
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 135-139
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Expression mechanisms of unsaturated systems are analyzed where simultaneous flow occurs of pore gas and pore liquid through consolidated cakes, and basic equations for calculating expression operations are presented in this paper.
    Expression processes are divided into two parts: instantaneous initial compression and so-called consolidation. Equations for the initial compression are analytically solved in view of the adiabatic compression of pore gas. Basic equations for the consolidation period are solved in the use of newly defined consolidation coefficient Ce. The operational variables for expression, i.e. void ratio e1 due to initial compression, consolidation ratio Uc and final degree of saturation S2, are well predicted from calculations based upon compression-permeability cell data. It is demonstrated that the amount of initial compression and the time rate of consolidation depend heavily on the initial degree of saturation.
    Favourable coincidence between theory and experiments is confirmed for unsaturated mixtures over about 0.7 of initial saturation.
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  • TOYOHIKO HAYAKAWA, MASATOMO SHIGETA
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 140-142
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TADASHI SHIROTSUKA, YOSHINORI KAWASE
    1974 Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 142-144
    Published: July 05, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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