JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 12 , Issue 4
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROKATSU MASUOKA, RYOZO TAWARAYA, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 257-263
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The solubility of solid hydrocarbons and inorganics (carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) in liquid hydrocarbons was correlated using the modified BWR equation of state of Lee and Kesler and the pseudocritical method to compute the fugacity coefficient of the solute in subcooled liquid. This method requires two binary parameters, k12 and s12, for each binary pair to be computed from experimental solid-liquid equilibrium data. These parameters are tabulated for a large number of binary systems. The correlation resulting from this investigation will be valuable in the design of cryogenic processes.
    Download PDF (508K)
  • AKINORI MATSUURA, TAKASHI AKEHATA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 263-268
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An equation for dynamic holdup of cocurrent gas-liquid downflow in packed beds was developed on the basis of models in which the interactions among liquid holdup, pressure gradient and liquid flow rate for the gravity-viscosity and the gravity-inertia regimes were taken into account. The dynamic holdup data for beds of glass spheres (0.12-0.43 cm in diameter) with air-water flow were correlated well, in terms of static pressure gradient and total holdup together with the operating variables, by the equation
    hφ=13.5[(Rel)/(Gal)]1/3+1.20(Rel)(Gal)-1/2
    where Rel=Gldpl and Gall2gdp3{1-(gclgh)(dp/dz)}/μl2.
    A procedure was also shown for evaluating the dynamic and the total holdups and the static pressure gradient using only such operating variables as particle diameter and superficial velocities of gas and liquid.
    Download PDF (476K)
  • TERUO TAKAHASHI, TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, TOSHIO SATO
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 269-274
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The paper is concerned with the gas void fraction on a perforated plate under gas-liquid crosscurrent flow.
    Experiments were carried out under a variety of plate geometries, weir heights, weir widths, liquid flow path lengths, gas and liquid rates and physical properties of liquids.
    The mean gas void fraction on a plate is found to be correlated in terms of the Froude number based on clear liquid height and free area. For so-called foaming materials, the mean gas void fraction shows a maximum value at a specific Froude number, and then approaches the values of non-foaming ones.
    Download PDF (495K)
  • TERUO TAKAHASHI, TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, HIROAKI MOCHIZUKI
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 275-280
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper deals with the hydrodynamic performance of very fine gas bubbles required for dissolved air pressure flotation, which are produced by dissolving air in water under pressure and subsequent flashing to normal pressure.
    Experiments were carried out on generated air flow rate and bubble diameter when air was dissolved in water under 1-5 Kg/cm2 gauge and flashed to normal pressure through a nozzle.
    The results clarify the effects of dissolved pressure, liquid flow rate and nozzle geometry, and the empirical equations for the number of generated bubbles are obtained. Also, some theoretical considerations on the generated air flow rate and diameter of generated bubbles are discussed.
    Download PDF (440K)
  • KOUICHI MIURA, HIROSHI KURAHASHI, YASUO INOKUCHI, KENJI HASHIMOTO
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 281-288
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simplified method was developed for calculating the breakthrough curves in fixed-bed adsorption with two solutes under the constant pattern (CP) and the linear driving force (LDF) approximations, in which both external fluid film mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion resistances were taken into account. By comparing three design methods derived without the CP approximation, the LDF approximation was found to be valid in the case of surface diffusion kinetics and also to hold approximately in the case of pore diffusion kinetics. The minimum column length required to establish the constant pattern was estimated by two methods, one employing the CP approximation, the other not, and the minimum column length was found to be estimated only by the simplified method. Experimental breakthrough curves were obtained for an aqueous solution of dodecylbenzenesulfonate and p-nitrophenol and a gaseous mixture of benzene and toluene. They were compared with the breakthrough curves predicted by the simplified method.
    Download PDF (704K)
  • TSUTAO OTAKE, SETSUJI TONE, KOJI KONO, KATSUMI NAKAO
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 289-295
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aqueous-phase photo-ozonization of phenols in concentrations ranging from 800 ppm to 1500 ppm was carried out by employing two kinds of reactors, one being a bubble column and the other a stirred cell having a gas-liquid free interface. The oxidation of phenols with ozone alone was also performed for comparison.
    The kinetic data from the stirred cell revealed that both photo-ozonization and ozonization fell into the fast pseudo-first order regime for simultaneous mass transfer and reaction. The intrinsic reaction rate constants for the degradation of various phenolic compounds were determined, based on the chemical absorption theory, from the data of the ozonizations in the bubble column over a wide range of variables.
    Product distributions were elucidated for removal of phenol and of its primary and secondary oxidation products. The overall reaction pathway was regarded as being comprised of the two successive oxidation series, each of which produced the same smaller molecules. The pH value as well as ultraviolet light intensity exerted negligible influence on the overall reaction pathway, but they enhanced the rate of each oxidation step.
    Ultraviolet radiation promoted remarkably the efficiency of ozone absorption in the later stage of ozonization rather than the application of higher pH.
    Download PDF (595K)
  • SUSUMU FUKUSHIMA, KATSUHIKO KUSAKA
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 296-301
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Liquid holdup and interfacial area were measured in columns packed with 1/2 and 1 in. ceramic spheres for upward cocurrent-flow mode, where the ratio of packing to column diameter, dp/dT, is 0.085, 0.128 and 0.169.
    The empirical equations of liquid holdup Φl for void fraction e are given as follows:
    Φl/ε=κRehiRe-jg
    where κ=1.8, h=0.03, j=0.28 for Rel<695Re-0.5g and κ=0.72, h=0.17, j=0.21 for Rel>695Reg-0.5.
    The empirical equations for interfacial area ap are also presented as follows:
    apdp/(1-Φl/ε)=αRemlReno(dp/dT)-t
    where the values of α, m, n and t are 16, 0.05, -0.4 and 0 for bubble (1), 2.2, 0.05, -0.2 and 0.5 for churn, 0.24. 0.27, 0 and 0.7 for pseudospray, 0.26, 2/3, -1/4 and 0.4 for bubble (11), 1.0×10-2, 2/3, 0 and 1.4 for pseudopulse and 2.9×10-4, 2/3, 0.2 and 2.5 for pulse flow, respectively. The equation for respective hydrodynamic flow boundary was found by combining two of these.
    The predicted mass-transfer coefficients for liquid phase given by the simple equation for downward flow mode agree with the literature data in a wide range of gas and liquid flow rates.
    Download PDF (458K)
  • EIICHI ABE, HIDEHARU HIROSUE, AKIRA YOKOTA
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 302-306
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two models are presented to estimate the average specific permeation resistance through a packed bed of binary mixture of particles. To confirm the validity of these models, packing and permeation experiments are carried out for systems of both spherical and non-spherical particles with particle size ratio ranging from about 2 to 10, and it is shown that estimated results agree well with experimental values. The variation of average specific permeation resistance with mixing ratio and particle size ratio is also shown.
    Download PDF (401K)
  • EIJI OBATA, HARUO WATANABE
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 307-312
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Using the batch settling curve of a feed slurry instead of the solid flux curve, a graphical analysis for semi-continuous thickeners with cyclic bottom discharge is developed on the basis of the Kynch theory for the sedimentation of suspension and the Talmage and Fitch technique for the design of thickener area.
    The analysis presented in this paper provides a method for predicting concentration distributions, the height of a discontinuity in concentration, and optimum operating conditions in semi-continuous thickeners. The values predicted by this method coincided well with experimental results for precipitated calcium carbonate slurries over a wide range of underloading or overloading operations.
    Download PDF (523K)
  • HIRONORI MORI, TAKUO YANO, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI, SHOICHI SHIMIZU
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 313-319
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Escherichia coli and Candida brassicae were cultivated in a fed-batch culture with a DO-stat under the condition that none of the components in the basal medium limited the growth of the microorganism. High densities of biomasses (125 g/l for E. coli and 138 g/l for C. brassicae) were obtained. The final biomasses obtained in the cultivations of E. coli and C. brassicae corresponded to 57% and 51%, respectively, of the limits that the organisms can be cultivated in view of viscosity of the broth. Metabolic products in the supernatant of the broth at the end of the cultivation and concentration of carbon dioxide in exit gas from the fermentor were measured, and the relations between cell concentration and growth yield with respect to carbon source were shown. It was considered that the decreases in growth yield and specific growth rate in the case of E. coli were due to the metabolites, including CO2, which increased to inhibitory concentrations. On the other hand, the possibility of obtaining a higher density of biomass was shown in the case of C. brassicae if a fermentor with higher oxygen transfer rate were used. Merits of using pure oxygen gas for production of biomass were exemplified.
    Download PDF (569K)
  • HARUO HIKITA, KOSAKU ISHIMI
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 320-322
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (241K)
  • K. K. BAVEJA, D. SUBBA RAO, M. K. SARKAR
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 322-325
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (290K)
  • MOMINUDDIN CHOWDHURY, TAKESHI ISHIKAWA, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 326-329
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (314K)
  • KOUICHI MIURA, KENJI HASHIMOTO
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 329-331
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (233K)
  • TOSHIFUMI ISHIKURA, ISAMU TANAKA, HISASHI SHINOHARA
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 332-333
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (136K)
  • SATOSHI OKUDA, HIROSHI TAKANO
    1979 Volume 12 Issue 4 Pages 334-336
    Published: August 20, 1979
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (153K)
feedback
Top