JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 41 , Issue 11
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry
  • Tzn-Wei Shih, Meng-Hui Li
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1011-1016
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    Liquid heat capacities of aqueous mixtures of diethanolamine (DEA) with 2-piperidineethanol (2-PE) were measured over the temperature range of 303.2 to 353.2 K with a differential scanning calorimeter. For mole fractions of water ranging from 0.2 to 0.8, 16 concentrations of the DEA + 2-PE + water systems were studied. For binary systems, heat capacities of the nine concentrations of DEA + 2-PE were also studied. A Redlich–Kister-type equation for representing excess molar heat capacity was applied to correlate the measured Cp of aqueous alkanolamine solutions. For a total of 176 data points for the DEA + 2-PE + water system, the overall average absolute percent deviation of the calculations were 10.6% and 0.1% for the excess molar heat capacity and the molar heat capacity, respectively. The heat capacities of aqueous mixtures of DEA with 2-PE presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations.
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Separation Engineering
  • Koji Machiya, Keiichi Koga, Takashi Mukuta, Shigeru Moriki, Kooji Kaga ...
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1017-1023
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    A cephalosporin antibiotic, PATC (5-Amino-2-[((6R,7R)-7-{(2Z)-2-(5-amino-1,2,4- thiadiazol-3-yl)-2-[(1-carboxy-1-methylethoxy)imino]acetylamino}-2-carboxy-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl)methyl]-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazol-2-iumchloride; MW 632.1 Da), was crystallized by neutralization method, and the spherical agglomeration of micro crystals was obtained to develop a drug for injection. The morphology of agglomerates depended on the initial super-saturation ratio and the presence or absence of seed crystals. Spherical agglomerates were obtained by adding seed crystals of 0.1 wt% under a high initial super-saturation ratio of 130. The compactly packed spherical agglomerates were composed of a number of rod-shape crystals with a uniform length of 60 μm, and had good filtration property. The specific volume of spherical agglomerates was 1.75 cm3/g.
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Chemical Reaction Engineering
  • Mitsuo Yamamoto, Mitsuo Koshi
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1024-1030
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    Chemical kinetic mechanisms of nitrogen compounds in combustion processes have been studied for many years. However, the models so far proposed have not been able to completely predict experimental results under some conditions in which surface reactions are expected to play an important role. Further investigation of a kinetic model for NO chemistry has been needed, and for this reason a kinetic model of nitrogen compounds both in a gas phase and on a quartz surface was developed in this study. The N/H/O mechanism developed by modifying earlier gas phase kinetic models was evaluated. However, the proposed mechanism was not able to reproduce the experimental results obtained from the vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). The N/H/O mechanism including both gas phase reactions and surface reactions was proposed in this study. It is suggested that under the present experimental conditions the surface reactions on SiO2 are effective for both NH3 oxidation and NO chemistry based on model predictions that included both gas phase and surface reactions on SiO2.
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  • Masaki Kubo, Koji Iimura, Toshikuni Yonemoto
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1031-1036
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    The C-alkylation of phenylacetonitrile in a solvent-free liquid–liquid system using phase transfer catalysis under ultrasonic irradiation was investigated. The effects of ultrasonic intensity, inner diameter of the reactor and concentrations of the phase transfer catalyst as well as the potassium hydroxide on the reaction rate were examined. The ultrasonic intensity had an optimum value for the reaction rate. The effect of the ultrasound to promote the reaction was attributed to the extremely large interfacial area between the two liquid phases. The high intensity ultrasound generated a large number of cavitation bubbles in the vicinity of the surface of the ultrasonic horn tip. Those bubbles prevented the acoustic stream induced by ultrasound from propagating to the bottom of the reactor, so that not many emulsion drops existed in the reactor, and the reaction rate was low. The reaction rate using ultrasonic irradiation was much faster than that using mechanical agitation. The reactor with smaller inner diameter produced a faster reaction rate. The reaction rate increased with the concentrations of TBAHS and potassium hydroxide.
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  • Thanh Phong Tran, Lifeng Wang, Dong Vien Vo, Hideo Kameyama, Takayuki ...
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1037-1041
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benefits from a low oxidation temperature due to less energy consumption. It is widely applied in the industry. Platinum catalysts supported on alumite film have been developed successfully in our group and have been applied in reactors for VOC catalytic combustion. In this work, a novel platinum catalyst was developed on an extremely thin alumite film, which was treated with etching technology before the anodic oxidation. The activity of the developed catalysts were evaluated with the catalytic combustion reaction of VOCs and the results indicate that the catalyst prepared on the extremely thin alumite film has almost the same activity as the catalyst supported on the conventional alumite film, although the platinum on the extremely thin alumite film is about 40% of the amount on the conventional alumite film. Moreover, the catalyst experiences good endurance towards the VOC catalyst combustion reaction. The platinum loading of the new catalyst is very low and the anodization time for the support is very short; hence, the manufacturing cost of the catalyst can be cut down about 60%. The developed catalyst was also applied in a VOC catalyst combustion reactor, which experiences good activity towards VOC combustion.
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  • Thanh Phong Tran, Yu Guo, Jian Chen, Lu Zhou, Makoto Sakurai, Hideo Ka ...
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1042-1048
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    In this study, to reduce the preparation time and production cost of anodic alumina support, the rapid anodization in sulfuric acid solution and at a high electric current density was employed to synthesize the rapidly anodized alumina support. After rapid anodization, the alumina support was soaked in sulfuric acid solution to widen its pore size (pore widening treatment, PWT). PWT conducted at 293–298 K for 45–60 min in 15.0 wt% sulfuric acid solution is considered to be effective to widen pore radius. PWT slightly changed its BET surface area, but it caused a substantial increase in BET surface area after subsequent HWT (hot water treatment) and high-temperature calcination. It is believed that PWT that it effectively reduces the inhibitory pore-sealing effect caused by HWT, and allows more alumina to react with hot water to form hydrated alumina, and obviously eventually increases its BET surface area.
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  • Toshiaki Matsuo, Masayuki Kamikawa, Naruyasu Okamoto
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1049-1054
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    It is necessary to lower the amount of meso-lactide formed in the thermal cracking process during polylactic acid production through lactide. This study chose catalyst concentration and depth of oligomer melts as governing factors through theoretical consideration and decided their order in rate equations by bench-scale continuous thermal cracking experiments. Orders of catalyst concentration and depth of oligomer melts are 4/3 and 1/2 in the rate equations of lactide formation and meso-lactide formation, respectively. Residence time of oligomer is proportional to the product of catalyst concentration to the –1/3 power and depth of oligomer melts to the 1/2 power. The ratio of meso-lactide formation to total lactide formation is proportional to the product of residence time and catalyst concentration to the 4/3 power. So, the ratio also becomes proportional to the product of catalyst concentration and the square root of the depth of oligomer melts. It is necessary to lower both catalyst concentration and depth of oligomer melts to lower the amount of meso-lactide formed.
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  • Jingsong Zhou, Yutaka Tada, Yoshihito Kato, Yuichiro Nagatsu, Katsufum ...
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1055-1060
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    In order to investigate the region of effective chemical reaction field in a sonoreactor, the power input per unit volume of liquid and the liquid height were varied. Decolorization experiments using iodine and disodium hydrogenphosphate in a starch solution under chemical reaction rate control conditions were carried out and the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the chemical reaction was examined. The region of the effective chemical reaction field depended on the power input per unit volume dissipated in the liquid but did not depend on the liquid height. With increasing the power input per unit volume of the liquid, the region of the effective chemical reaction field became larger and the effective chemical reaction rate increased.
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Process Systems Engineering and Safety
  • Michiko Seo, Yoshiaki Akutsu, Hiroshi Kagemoto
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1061-1067
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    A flow-type electrochemical wastewater treatment cell that uses a natural water flow without circulation or stirring device was investigated. Aluminium pipes were used as substrates; they were coated with Sb-doped SnO2 in order to fabricate Sb-SnO2/Al electrodes, and stainless steel pipes of a different diameter were used as counter electrodes. Three types of cells were prepared, in which electrodes (anode or cathode) were placed perpendicularly; these electrode pipes were arranged in concentric circles in a container. Electrolysis was conducted using a solution containing N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline that can selectively react with OH radicals, and the changes in concentration were measured. The concentration decreased clearly when the solution passed through the electrodes only once. It was evident that the treatment efficiency differed due to the cell design, even when the same electrode (property and area), electrolyte, current density and water volume were used. This study suggests that in order to treat wastewater efficiently, it is important to consider not only the material of the electrodes but also their shape or arrangement and the water flow in a cell.
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  • Yoshiaki Shimizu, Takayuki Nomachi
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1068-1074
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    Associated with the design of a value system having inherently multi-attributed nature, this paper describes an integrated multi-objective optimization incorporated with meta-modeling. It aims eventually at developing a user-adaptive system toward flexible integrated product optimization of articraft. From this viewpoint, we present a design method for multi-objective optimization (MOP) in terms of computational intelligence. The method is very flexible in identifying a value function that is likely to fluctuate depending on the decision environment. The method is proven to be robust against unsteady and unstable human subjective judgement, and amenable to the problem using meta-model for emerging technologies. To facilitate its wide application in various areas and in multi-disciplinary decision environment, we implement it on an Excel spreadsheet. The usefulness of the developed software is examined through an illustrative study regarding the design of a micro devise.
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Biochemical, Food and Medical Engineering
  • Keyur Raval, Jochen Büchs
    Type: Research Paper
    2008 Volume 41 Issue 11 Pages 1075-1082
    Published: November 20, 2008
    Released: November 20, 2008
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    Power consumption in large disposable shaking bioreactors can be readily measured by monitoring the temperature change of a fluid over time until steady state. However, as viscosity changes with temperature and power consumption depends on viscosity, no defined conditions exist. Therefore, an extended temperature method for determination of power consumption in disposable large shaking bioreactors of size >2 L is introduced and compared with the conventional temperature method. Dynamic simultaneous parameter estimation using several different data sets is performed for evaluation of model parameters. Results indicate suitability of the new method for measurement of power consumption for fluids possessing water-like viscosity as well as for viscous Newtonian fluids. The maximum values of power consumption obtained for water and for an 80% glycerol/water system is approximately 10 kW/m3 and 23 kW/m3, respectively. A non dimensional description of power consumption is given. The unusual behaviour observed in the value of power consumption in the 50 L vessel reveals that, under specific conditions, obviously “out-of-phase” conditions are encountered, necessitating further investigation at different shaking diameters.
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