JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 21 , Issue 6
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • SATORU INOUE, KATSUHIDE EGUCHI, TSUNEHIKO IMAMOTO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 569-575
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A high thermal-efficiency impinging jet nozzle was developed by a study of nozzle structure in order to devise a photogravure press and coater-dryer of energy-saving type.
    Aiming at an expansion of the high heat transfer range and turbulence promotion compared to the existing slit nozzle, a high-performance impinging jet nozzle with a heat transfer coefficient 1.5 times that of a slit nozzle was acquired through analysis and examination of the phenomenon of impinging jet heat transfer by means of trial production of about 40 kinds of nozzle, measurement of heat transfer coefficient, visualization of flow and heat transfer pattern, and measurement of jet velocity and turbulence distribution.
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  • JEONG SHIK CHO, NORIAKI WAKAO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 576-581
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Experiments were carried out on bubble stripping of aqueous solutions of five organic solutes and oxygen dissolved at initial concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 0.04kg⋅m-3. Little interaction was found to exist among the solutes, as far as gas holdup and overall volumetric mass transfer coefficients at low concentrations are concerned. The liquid-side and gas-side volumetric mass transfer coefficients were obtained from measured overall coefficients. Correlations for the liquid-side volumetric mass transfer coefficients were obtained in terms of liquid-phase diffusivity and gas flow rate for two types of gas spargers: single-nozzle and porous-tube spargers. Correlations for the gas-side volumetric mass transfer coefficients were also obtained for these spargers.
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  • SHIGEAKI INADA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 582-588
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The transient heat transfer rate from a free-falling large drop of molten lead to a cold plate surface maintained at about room temperature was experimentally estimated by solving the inverse heat conduction problem, taking into account the time variation of the area covered by the drop.
    Furthermore, the change with time in thickness of the solidification layer formed within the drop was estimated on the basis of a few assumptions and the cooling condition required to obtained a high cooling rate was found.
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  • MITSUTAKA KITAMURA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 589-595
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Polymorphous clathrate crystals of β- and γ-type were observed to precipitate by crystallization in methylcellosolve (MCS) solutions containing tetra(4-methylpyridine)nickel(II)dithiocyanate (Ni-complex) and 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The relative precipitation behavior of these polymorphs was divided into three Parts (I, II, III) with respect to 1-MN concentration.
    By solubility measurements of Ni-complex forming the host lattice of each polymorph, it was found that there is a cross-point of the solubility curves which can be regarded as the transition point between the polymorphs concerning 1-MN concentration.
    A nucleation model was proposed, assuming a competitive nucleation process for the liquid clathrates of each polymorph. By using this model it was clarified that the relative nucleation behavior of the polymorphs depends on the ratio of their supersaturation ratios.
    Transformation was observed when the metastable crystals were added to the solutions in Parts I or III, and it was suggested that the main transformation mechanism was "solution-mediated".
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  • TAKEICHIRO TAKAMATSU, VEERAPOT LUEPRASITSAKUL, MASARU NAKAIWA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 595-601
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    A mathematic model for an internal heat-integrated packed distillation column (IHIPAC) is developed on the basis of interphase mass transfer theory. A new method for design of an IHIPAC is proposed using the newly developed model. The binary system of methanol-water is adopted for the simulation work. The results show that an IHIPAC can be operated at a reflux ratio smaller than the minimum reflux ratio of a conventional distillation column, and that an energy saving of approximate 30% can be achieved under various operating conditions.
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  • HIROMOTO USUI, TAKASHI SAEKI, YUJI SANO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 602-607
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    A simple but quite reliable evaluation method for the stability of coal-water mixtures was proposed. The change of internal structural stress based on the phenomenological thixotropy model was measured by means of a rheometer. The final strength of internal structural stress was well correlated with the experimental results of stability tests. Empirical correlation equations to evaluate both the static and dynamic stabilities of CWM were proposed. These empirical equations enable us to evaluate the stability of CWM by means of a rapid thixotropy test alone.
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  • YOSHIYUKI BANDO, MICHIO KURAISHI, MAKOTO NISHIMURA, MAKOTO HATTORI, TA ...
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 607-612
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flow characteristics of the downflow bubble column with a simultaneous gas-liquid injection nozzle were experimentally investigated. The flow pattern was observed and ranges of stable cocurrent downflow operation were examined. Gas holdup and specific gas-liquid interfacial area were measured.
    When the simultaneous gas-liquid injection nozzle was used in the downflow bubble column, spouting and calm sections were observed to appear in the column. In the spouting section, gas holdup was higher and interfacial area was larger than those in the calm section.
    In comparison with the results for the perforated sparger, the bubble diameter was smaller and the range of stable cocurrent downflow operation was wider. In addition, it was found that, under a specified condition, the gas holdup was lower and the interfacial area was larger than those in the case of the perforated sparger, and that such differences became more marked with decreasing nozzle diameter and with increasing liquid velocity.
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  • HARUO ISHIKAWA, KATSUO KUROSE, MAKOTO OOGAITO, HARUO HIKITA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 613-620
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As a fundamental study to develop an efficient method for the separation of α- and β-naphthols by combining enzymatic reaction and selective extraction, we investigated the kinetics and the mechanism of the hydrolysis of α-and β-naphthyl sulfates catalyzed by free sulfatase from Helix pomatia. These hydrolysis reactions occur competitively and obey a Michaelis-Menten type mechanism. The products, α- and β-naphthols, are inhibitors of both hydrolysis reactions. The enzyme was immobilized in porous gel lattices of albumin and glutaraldehyde. We measured the initial rates of the hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by the membrane-bound sulfatase and analyzed them in terms of the catalytic effectiveness factor. The kinetic parameters evaluated were almost the same as those for free enzyme, except that Km for α-naphthyl sulfate and kB/kA the ratio of the production rate constants were respectively 1/6.1 and 1/2.4 those of free enzyme.
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  • TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, WEI-HONG WANG, TERUO TAKAHASHI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 620-626
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bubble formation at a submerged orifice was studied experimentally for non-Newtonian liquids (aqueous CMC solutions) and highly viscous Newtonian liquids (aqueous glycerol solutions). The bubble volumes formed in both non-Newtonian and highly viscous Newtonian liquids are large compared to those formed in relatively low-viscosity Newtonian liquids. The formation regime of the constant-pressure condition, usually found for low-viscosity Newtonian liquids as reported by Tadaki et al., 12) was not observed. Using an extended two-stage bubble-formation model, the bubble volumes formed at a submerged orifice in non-Newtonian and highly viscous Newtonian liquids are considered. The predicted bubble volumes compare satisfactorily with the experimental data over a wide range of parameters of power law liquid (m < around 8Pa. sn, 0.95 > n > 0.57) and viscosities of Newtonian liquids (5.05 Pa. s > μl > 0.439Pa s) including the results of the present work and that of Tsuge et al.13, 15)
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  • CHIAKI KURODA, MAMORU TOMITA, GIL C. CASTILLO, MASARU ISHIDA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 626-631
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A computer language that allows both procedural and inferential programming was developed. In this language, an inference engine of first-order predicate calculus similar to Prolog was installed in a FORTH-like procedural language "The IntelligenT (TIT)." Hence one can execute the inferential treatment inside procedural routines. In addition, one can add procedural operation to the inference. This language was applied to rule-based control for a system with long dead time such as control of temperature of an air stream caused by natural convection. The rules are written as if-then expressions. Since these rules are not given by a procedural program but rather as a rule-base, their description and modification are quite easy. Satisfactory control was achieved by this rule-based controller.
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  • MASARU KONGO, CHIAKI YOKOYAMA, SHINJI TAKAHASHI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 632-639
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The gas-phase viscosity of the methane-chlorodifluoromethane (R22) system was measured in the temperature range from 298.15 to 373.15 K and at pressures up to 5MPa. The measurements were performed with a Maxwell type oscillating-disc viscometer. The viscosity at atmospheric pressure was correlated by three methods: the Chapman-Enskog equation, the Sutherland equation with Wilke combination factors and the Sutherland equation with Brokaw factors. It was found that the results calculated from the Sutherland equation with Brokaw combination factors gave the best agreement with the experimental data. The viscosity data at various pressures could not be correlated successfully by the residual viscosity correlations of Dean and Stiel or the equation of Pedersen et al. A new empirical equation for the correlation factor was proposed that extends the corresponding states viscosity equation with methane as the reference substance to the polar substance R22.
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  • SATORU KOMORI, KAZUTAKA TAKATA, YASUHIRO MURAKAMI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 639-644
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The flow structure and mixing mechanism of the high-viscosity fluid in an agitated thin-film evaporator were experimentally and numerically investigated. Film thickness, holdup and power consumption were measured, and velocity distributions were numerically calculated using a finite element method. The results show that most of the fluid flows down in a fillet and that mixing between fillet and film is extremely suppressed. This also suggests that usual thin-film evaporators are not always effective.
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  • HITOSHI KOSUGE, YASUHIRO MOCHIZUKI, KOICHI ASANO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 645-650
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experimental studies to the effect of interactions between diffusion fluxes in ternary distillation of the methanol-2-propanol-water system are made by a vertical flat plate wetted-wall column under total reflux conditions for wide ranges of vapor flow rates and liquid concentrations.
    Observed vapor-phase diffusion fluxes are compared with the results of numerical analysis for ternary mass transfer in the laminar boundary layer with surface mass injection or suction. The effects of partial condensation of mixed vapors and of interactions between diffusion fluxes are examined with reference to the laminar boundary layer theory for ternary mass systems. A correlation for the vapor-phase diffusion fluxes in ternary distillation is proposed by considering the effect of interactions between diffusion fluxes under high mass flux conditions.
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  • XIA HUANG, HAJIME UNNO, TAKASHI AKEHATA, OKIHIKO HIRASA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 651-655
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The swelling pressure appearing in the swelling process of nonionic poly(vinylmethylether) gel (PVMEG) was studied experimentally. When a piece of PVMEG was placed in the space between two plates, it exerted a swelling pressure on the plates. Larger swelling pressure was observed under the conditions of lower temperature or smaller space between the plates, i.e., smaller gel porosity. The swelling pressure was primarily due to the contribution of the hydrogen bond of methoxyl groups in the polymer network with water molecules. The effect of salt on the swelling pressure of gel correlated well with the ratio of the valency to radius of the anion group in the salt.
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  • TAKAMI KAI, TAKESHIGE TAKAHASHI, MASANOBU AJIOKA, SHINJI TAKENAKA, NAO ...
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 655-657
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SATORU MIZUTANI, HIROSHI NAITO, SHINJI IIJIMA, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 658-660
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TAKASHI NAKAYAMA, HIROSHI SAGARA, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 660-662
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • MASAO YAMAZAKI, TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 663-667
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SHIGEKI TAKISHIMA, HIDEAKI KURATA, MIKIO KONNO, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 667-669
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • MASAHARU TAKAO, YASUHIRO MURAKAMI, TSUTOMU HIROSE
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 670-671
    Published: December 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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