JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 17 , Issue 6
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • MAKOTO HARADA, NAOFUMI SHIOMI, FUMIO YAMAZAKI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 567-572
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The separation of iron and zinc was studied with the use of liquid membrane containing tri-n-octylamine in benzene. The selective separation of zinc and iron can be performed with the help of the strong difference in permeation rates between the two metals. Simultaneous enrichment of zinc and iron can be realized if a proper condition is selected, i.e., the condition that fluxes of both zinc and iron are controlled by the diffusional resistance in the raffinate aqueous phase.
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  • MAKOTO HARADA, NAOFUMI SHIOMI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 572-576
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Selective separation is usually performed with the help of a strong difference in the permeation rates of the solutes through a liquid membrane, where the solutes are transported through the membrane in co-current fashion. In this work we propose a method of obtaining the countercurrent transport of the solutes, by using a liquid membrane with two kinds of carriers which have different mechanisms of extracting the solutes. It was demonstrated that one carrier, TOA, transports the metals zinc and iron from one aqueous phase to the other while the other carrier, D2EHP, preferentially back-transports to the original aqueous phase the iron transported by TOA. An efficient separation of zinc and iron was performed with the help of these two carriers.
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  • OSAMU ARIGA, TADATSUGU OKUMURA, MASAHITO TAYA, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 577-582
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    As H2 and CO2 can be utilized by methanogenic bacteria, as well as volatile fatty acids such as formic acid, biomethanations of the gaseous substrates and formic acid were carried out under elevated pressure. The pH of the medium was adjusted to the appropriate value for the methanogenic bacteria (pH 6.8) by changing the amount of Na2CO3 added to the medium. Biomethanation was not inhibited by elevated partial pressure of the gaseous substrates in the absence of mass transfer limitation of H2, nor retarded by elevated pressure when formic acid was used as a carbon source. However, the amount of methane evolved from CO2 and H2 for 3 days under 101 kPa decreased to 25 % compared with that under 355 kPa in the presence of the mass transfer limitation of H2. This effect is explained by the mass transfer model.
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  • HIROMOTO USUI, YUJI SANO, MORIHIKO SAWADA, TAKASHI HONGOH
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 583-588
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the better preparation of highly loaded coal-water slurries in coal utilization processes, the thixotropic behavior of CWM was simulated by means of a new thixotropy model employing the yield stress as a structural parameter. Ways to imrpove the slurry preparation method were studied by combining the experimental results of thixotropy and stability measurements. It is concluded that the thixotropic parameter determined in this work is useful in judging the stability of CWM.
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  • MASAYUKI KURO-OKA, TOSHIYUKI SUZUKI, TOMOSHIGE NITTA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 588-592
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Equilibrium data for single-component adsorption on activated fiber carbon, KF-1500 are presented for the five gases methane, ethane, propylene, 1-pentane and carbon dioxide at 0, 25 and 50 °C. An adsorption equation by a multi-site occupancy model for homogeneous surface represents the isotherms fairly well, but the calculated amounts of adsorption are usually less than those observed at low surface coverage. The deviation may be attributed to the surface heterogeneity, which is neglected in the equation. From a comparison of isotherms on glanular and fiber activated carbons, it is suggested that the difference is only in the specific surface area, and that the other two parameters, the number of sites occupied by a molecule and the adsorption equilibrium constant, are almost the same for the two activated carbons.
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  • TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, MINORU IWATA, TERUO TAKAHASHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 592-597
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bubble formation phenomena with weeping at a submerged orifice were investigated experimentally over a range of orifice diameters of 3-13.2 mm. There appeared to be four regimes of interest: single bubbling at small chamber volumes and low gas flow rates, doubling noticed with increasing gas flow rate, jetting at further increase of gas flow rate and pairing at very large chamber volumes under conditions of gas flow rates smaller than those for jetting point. Empirical relationships predicting each transitional point of bubble formation regimes are obtained.
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  • TOSHIRO MIYAHARA, TERUO TAKAHASHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 597-602
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Bubble volumes in the single bubbling regime, which is one of bubble formation regimes with weeping, are larger than those for bubble formation without weeping. A theoretical treatment for bubble formation with weeping is performed to predict bubble volume in the single bubbling regime where weeping through an orifice occurs after the detachment of a bubble, and a comparison with measurements is made.
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  • HAKUAI INOUE, MASAKI FUNAKOSHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 602-610
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The kinetics of reaction of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with hydrogen in a nickel catalyst tube wall reactor were investigated experimentally and the reaction mechanisms were clarified.
    The observed rate laws were
    -rco = (k1PH2P1/2CO)/(1 + KCOPCO) for carbon monoxide, and
    -rco2 = (k''PH2P1/3CO2)/(1 + KCO2PCO2 + KH2 + KH2OPH2O)
    for carbon dioxide at low partial pressure.
    These reaction rate laws were derived theoretically from the proposed reaction mechanism. For a mixture of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide the kinetics of the reaction proved to be well accounted for by the same reaction mechanism.
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  • KOZO KOIDE, SHINJI IWAMOTO, YUKITOSHI TAKASAKA, SHINJI MATSUURA, ETSUO ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 611-618
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of gas velocity and geometrical dimensions of apparatus on the flow rate QL of circulating liquid, gas holdups and pressure drops in bubble columns with draught tube were examined. It was found that QL increases with increasing gas velocity, column diameter, draught tube length, and height of the lower end of draught tube, and decreases with increasing liquid viscosity. It was also found that the maximum value of QL is observed for constant values of gas velocity and column diameter, when the diameter ratio of draught tube and column is about 0.6.
    Empirical equations for gas holdups in draught tube and annulus and the pressure drops due to flow reversals, necessary for estimating QL, are proposed.
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  • HIDEKI TSUGE, SHIN-ICHI HAMAMOTO, SHIN-ICHI HIBINO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 619-623
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The wall effect on the terminal velocity and the shape of single bubbles rising in highly viscous liquids has been investigated experimentally. The terminal velocities of single bubbles affected by the column wall are correlated with two dimensionless equations between ReM0.48/(l - λ1.5) and Eötvös number Eo, where λ is the bubble and column diameter ratio and 1 -λ1.5 is the wall effect function, which was also used for relatively low-viscosity liquids.
    The aspect ratio h/w defining the bubble deformation is found to be a function of Re and λ for Re ≥0.1, while it is a function of λ only for Re < 0.1. The bubble deforms from the sphere in the vicinity of Eo = 6, which corresponds to the border of dimensionless equations of bubble rising velocity.
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  • YOSHINORI ADACHI, HIDEZUMI SUGIE, BENJAMIN C.-Y. LU
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 624-631
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Eleven volume-cubic equations of state were evaluated for their capabilities of predicting pure-substance properties, such as compressibility factor, fugacity coefficient, enthalpy departure, vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor volumes, compressed liquid volume, second virial coefficient and latent heat of vaporization. The calculated results were compared with available experimental data and/or generalized correlations. Furthermore, comparisons are graphically presented to depict the characteristics of the equations tested. It appears that the Adachi-Lu-Sugie equation is recommendable for its overall performance.
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  • KATSUHIKO FUJINAWA, MITSUGU MORISHITA, MITSUNORI HOZAWA, NOBUYUKI IMAI ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 632-636
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rate of demulsification of W/O emulsion was studied experimentally, using a batch A.C. electric demulsifier. The oil phase was kerosene, containing Span 80 as a surfactant (Cs = 1-7 wt %), and LIX64N as an extraction reagent (CLIX=0-8wt%).
    The water phase contained an electrolyte such as NaCl, H2SO4 or CuSO4 (CE = 0-0.6 mol/dm3).
    It is clarified that the rate of demulsification is proportional to C-0.5S and increases as CLIX and CE increase. An experimental equation is presented for estimation of the demulsification rate.
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  • TOSHIO AKIMOTO, TOMOSHIGE NITTA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 637-641
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experimental data are presented for vapor pressure and nitrogen solubility at 25 °C for three binary nonpolar mixtures: cyclohexane + 1-hexane, cyclohexane + carbon tetrachloride and benzene + carbon tetrachloride. The one-fluid van der Waals model with the Carnahan-Starling equation for a reference fluid expression is applied to represent three thermodynamic excess quantities: the excess Gibbs energy, the excess molar volume and the excess quantity of gas solubility. It is found that agreement of the theory and the experiments is fairly good for mixtures of relatively globular molecules of benzene, cyclohexane and carbon tetrachloride. However, disagreement is found for mixtures of cyclohexane + 1-hexane.
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  • EIZO SADA, SHIGEO KATOH, TSUNEO INOUE, KAZUO MATSUKURA, MASAMI SHIOZAW ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 642-646
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Stable tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (EC 6.1.1.1) was isolated from thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus and purified by use of two consecutive affinity chromatographic procedures on a large scale. The specific activity increased 25, 900-fold after the purification. With a Matrex Blue A column, used in the finalstep affinity Chromatography, the effects of factors influencing the performance of Chromatography were studied. The column diameter was scaled up from 1.65cm to 18.4cm without appreciable change in the elution profiles. The degree of purification decreased gradually and the elution profile became sharper with the increase in concentration of potassium chloride from 0.1 to 0.6 mol ⋅ 1-1. Variation of the elution profile with liquid velocity was also studied. The experimental elution curves showed general agreement with the calculated values based on the mass transfer theory.
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  • SATORU TAKAMATSU, MASASHI UEBA, KIYOKAZU YAMASHITA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 647-649
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YUJI SHINDO, TOSHIKATSU HAKUTA, HIROSHI YOSHITOME, HAKUAI INOUE
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 650-652
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • K. NGUYEN-TIEN, A. N. PATWARI, A. SCHUMPE, W.-D. DECKWER
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 652-653
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KOHEI OGAWA, CHIAKI KURODA, ICHIRO INOUE
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 654-656
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KOJI TAKAHASHI, TOSHIYUKI YOKOTA, HIROTAKA KONNO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 657-659
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TAKAO KOKUGAN, YOSHITAKA HIRAI, HIROKAZU KOBAYASHI, MASARU SHIMIZU
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 660-663
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • RYUICHI FUKUZATO, YASUSHI TOMISAKA, HIROSHI INOMATA, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZA ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 6 Pages 663-666
    Published: December 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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