JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 13 , Issue 1
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • SHIRO ITO, KOHEI OGAWA, NAOHIRO SHIRAGAMI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new idea is introduced to explain the mechanism of drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow of dilute polymer solutions.
    Assume that there is a stress relaxation phenomenon for a polymer in solution and define a new quantity known as the dynamic viscosity. Also assume that the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid is the sum of the laminar and turbulent viscosities where the turbulent viscosity is defined under the assumption that the product of the friction factor and Reynolds number has the value 16 for any Reynolds number. In the case of polymer solutions, further add the dynamic viscosity to the sum of the laminar and turbulent viscosities and assume that the same relation between friction factor and Reynolds number may be established.
    From these considerations the ratio of the friction factor of a polymer solution to that of a Newtonian fluid can be related to the concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight, pipe diameter and Reynolds number as variables. Good agreement is obtained and theoretical considerations are verified by experiment. The friction factor of CMC solution in turbulent flow can be estimated when concentration of polymer solution, molecular weight, pipe diameter and Reynolds number are given.
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  • SHIRO ITO, KOHEI OGAWA, CHIAKI KURODA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 6-10
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The decay process of turbulent swirling flow in an axisymmetric circular pipe is analyzed and a method to estimate the tangential mean velocity distribution is proposed.
    Two basic new factors, viz. the imaginary inlet position of the swirl decay and the friction velocity Uθf for the swirling flow, were defined in order to investigate the distribution of the intensity of swirl Γ. It became clear that there were characteristic functional relationships between the dimensionless radius r+ and the dimensionless intensity of swirl Γ+ in the forced vortex zone and in the quasi-free vortex zone, respectively, where r and Γ were made dimensionless by Uθf. By making use of these relationships between r+ and Γ+ and the exponential decay process of Γ in the axial direction after determination of the values of empirical coefficients, a calculation procedure for tangential mean velocity in a given condition is proposed.
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  • HAJIME UNNO, TAKASHI AKEHATA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 10-15
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new method of dispersion coefficient measurement is proposed, based on the measurement of mean first-passage time from an internal position to either boundary of the control region. The features of the method are as follows:
    1. It can be applied to a system where the dispersion phenomenon is controlled by random motion of material.
    2. Mean dispersion coefficient of a local region in a non-homogeneous system can be evaluated. There exists an optimal scale of control region for the method, and four times the scale of phenomena is recommended for the size of control region.
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  • EIICHI KOJIMA, HAJIME UNNO, YUKINARI SATO, TADASHI CHIDA, HIROSHI IMAI ...
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 16-21
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Liquid Telocity distribution was measured in a bubble column 5.5 m in diameter and approximately 7 m in liquid height. Liquid flow was upward in the column center and downward near the wall. The upward velocities were from 52 to 115 cm/sec in the superficial gas velocity range from 2.4 to 8.5 cm/sec.
    The liquid velocity distribution is analyzed by a circulating flow model. Values of the turbulent viscosity-the parameter of the model-are in the range from 3000 to 4000 g/cm • sec. These values agree well with those estimated by an empirical formula for turbulent viscosity proposed by Miyauchi and Shyu for smaller-diameter bubble columns.
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  • YOSHIKI MIYASAKA, SHIGEAKI INADA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 22-28
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper is concerned with heat transfer from a heated surface with uniform heat flux to a two-dimensional water jet. It describes quantitatively the results on the effect of pure forced convection on heat transfer with boiling in a flow of subcooled water. Experiments were carried out in two flow fields of an impinging water jet, at the stagnation point and in the parallel flow zone. Approximation of the superposition, that is, the total heat flux at forced convective boiling consisting of pool boiling heat flux and pure convective heat flux, held fairly good up to the burn-out heat flux region.
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  • YOSHIKI MIYASAKA, SHIGEAKI INADA, YOSHIHIKO OWASE
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 29-35
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present paper is concerned with a high subcooling water jet boiling system at the stagnation point. The purpose of the investigation is to obtain a high heat flux and to reveal the high heat flux mechanism. Most of the discussion in this paper is based on experimental results and concerns the effect of subcooling, jet velocity, and stagnation pressure on critical heat flux and nucleate boiling in the transient region. The entire range of the boiling curve is divided into three heat transfer regions which may be hypothesized to exist in nucleate boiling.
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, TADAAKI NISHIKI, YOSHIO TAMURA, KORETSUNE UEYAMA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 35-40
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The permeation mechanism has been studied to obtain fundamental information for developing liquid membrane process. Chloride ion was concentrated across a diaphragm-type liquid membrane impregnated with Amberlite LA-II as a mobile carrier. This process is considered to constitute a kind of active transport process.
    The permeation rates of chloride ion are explained approximately by a permeation model in which hydrochloric acid reacts with the carrier at the interface of one side of the membrane and the complex formed by the reaction then diffuses through the membrane and further reacts with sodium hydroxide in the vicinity of the opposite interface.
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  • TAKAO KOKUGAN, KEIJI TETSUKA, MASARU SHIMIZU
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 41-48
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the separation of a multicomponent mixture by a thermal diffusion column, experiments in the separation of a ternary mixture composed of helium, argon and krypton were performed with batch and continuous draw-off operations. In both operations the lightest component of molecular weight, helium, and the heaviest component, krypton, in the ternary mixture behave respectively as light and heavy components in a binary mixture, but the separation factor of the middle component argon is small and shows a complex relation by interaction from both sides. For batch operation the experimental results were in qualitative agreement with the solutions by Schumacher''s method in which the mean value of self-diffusivity was adopted as diffusion coefficient. Müller''s solution, derived for isotopic mixtures, was used mainly in order to estimate the separation of non-isotopic mixture under continuous draw-off operation. The assumptions in the derivation of Müller''s solution are partially inapplicable to a non-isotopic mixture. But the results calculated from Müller''s solution were in agreement with the experimental results when feed flow rate σF is less than 1 per cent of mean natural flow rate in column Gm. The deviation between 2experimental and calculated results becomes remarkably large at σF>0.1•Gm because of remixing and disturbance by feed of gas mixture.
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  • TING-CHIA HUANG
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 49-54
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The apparent interdiffusion of counter-ions in anion exchange membrane Selemion ASV was investigated. The experimental results show that the rate of interdiffusion is controlled by combined film diffusion and membrane diffusion at low flow rate, but controlled by membrane diffusion alone at high flow rate. The relationships between the apparent interdiffusion coefficient and temperature can be expressed by the Arrhenius equation for various systems. The apparent interdiffusion coefficient arid interdiffusion activation energy for various systems have the orders
    DOH-Br>DOH-C1>DOH-NO3>DOH-I ?? DOH-SO4 AND EOH-Br<E>SbOH-C1<E>SbOH-I, respectively. The interdiffusion of counter ions is independent of the kinds of co-ions at low concentration of the solution. There are an increase of integral interdiffusion coefficient and a decrease of interdiffusion activation energy with increasing bulk concentration of the electrolyte solution.
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  • MOTOAKI ADACHI, KIKUO OKUYAMA, YASUO KOUSAKA, TAKESHI TAKAHASHI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 55-60
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The electrical charging process in which uncharged aerosol particles are mixed with various concentrations of bipolar ion was studied by solving the basic equation, the so-called birth-death equation, numerically for various conditions. Some of the calculated results were compared with the experimental results obtained by the visible experimental technique. As a result, the time-dependent change in charge distribution of aerosol particles was found to be very rapid, and the equilibrium charge, which was effected by the ratio of number concentration of ion pairs to that of aerosols, was evaluated. The critical ratio where Boltzmann''s equilibrium distribution was attained was also evaluated.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TSUTOMU ARAGAKI, EIJI IRITANI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 61-66
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Filtration of non-Newtonian fluids has become increasingly important in broad areas of industry. In the previous paper, a basic theory of power-law non-Newtonian filtration was presented by using the fixed spatial coordinate which has been traditionally used in studies in filtration, and an approximate method for predicting overall filtration characteristics was presented.
    In this paper, a more accurate theory is derived in consideration of the internal flow rate variation due to cake compressibility, which enables one to evaluate not only the rigorous, overall characteristics but also the internal cake structures in non-Newtonian filtration. The theory is represented by using a moving coordinate in accordance with recent works in cake expression. Under various conditions of the flow behavior index TV, ranging from N- 0.344 for highly pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluids to N=-1 for Newtonian fluids, and of applied filtration pressure ranging from 1000 to 3000 G/cm2, constant-pressure filtration experiments were carried out. It is shown that both the observed variations of the hydraulic pressures pL in filter cake and the average specific filtration resistance experimentally determined coincide fairly well with predictions based upon the theory presented in this paper.
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  • MIKIO KONNO, YUICHI MATSUNAGA, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 67-73
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A simulation model is proposed for the breakup process of drops and the distribution of resultant daughter drops in an agitated tank, in order to account for the effect of liquid turbulence around drops. The variation of drop size distribution with time after the start of agitation was measured and compared with that predicted by the proposed model. This model is found to be capable of predicting the breakup process.
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  • HIDEO NISHIUMI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 74-76
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
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  • HIROMOTO USUI, TAKUSHI SHIBATA, YUJI SANO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 77-79
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TADASHI SHIROTSUKA, MASAO SUDOH, TOSHIHIKO YOSHIDA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 80-82
    Published: February 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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