Antineoplaston (Ap), a new antitumor agent, was clinically tested for effects on malignant brain tumors. The materials were 3 cases of glioblastoma (G, B), 2 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 case of pontine glioma, 2 cases of metastatic brain tumor and 1 case of medulloblastoma. All patients underwent radiochemotherapy and surgical resection of the tumors except the cases of pontine glioma, metastatic brain tumor and anaplastic astrocytoma. For gliomas, radiochemotherapy was used with Hu-IFN-β Ap was administered at a dose of 7-10 g/day in combination with remission maintenance therapy of gliomas. Complete response was obtained in one anaplastic astrocytoma. Partial response was obtained in 2 cases, a pontine glioma and a metastatic brain tumor. No change was observed in 2 cases, an anaplastic astrocytoma and a multiple brain metastasis. Progression of the disease was observed in 4 cases, 3 glioblastomas and 1 medulloblastoma, which showed continuous increase in tumor size. The effects of Ap on malignant brain tumors were considered due to synergy, since it was administered with other drugs and acceleration of tumor cellular differentiation. Ap is useful as an approach to remission maintenance therapy for brain tumors.
Biochemical assays have demonstrated the existence of hormone receptors in lung tissue from patients with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM). This finding is the biologic corollary to the finding that LAM responds to hormonal therapy. We have examined lung tissue from two patients with LAM for estrogen and progesterone receptors by immunohistochemistry and a biochemical assay. Although specimens from both patients were negative for estrogen receptor activity by the biochemical assay, positive stain of estrogen receptors was observed in both patients with immunohistochemistry.
From 1976 to 1992, a total of 358 cases of mucosal early gastric cancer (m-cancer) were treated by resection in the First Department of Surgery, Kurume University Hospital. Eight (2.2%) of these 358 cases of m-cancer were associated with lymph node metastasis. In these 358 cases, the mean diameter of the tumor was 2.75 cm, and the mean age was 59.6 years. In the 8 cases of m-cancer with positive lymph node metastasis (n (+)), the mean diameter was 5.2 cm and the mean age was 51.6 years. Seven (87.5%) out of the 8 cases of m-cancer with n (+) were IIc macroscopic cancer type and were associated with ulcer and/or ulcer scar.
A novel human T cell line (SALT-3) was established from the pleural effusion of a patient with adult T cell leukemia (ATL) of lymphoma type. SALT-3 showed atypical T cell markers such as CD1-CD2-CD3-CD4+CD5+CD7+CD8-CD19-CD20-CD25+HLA-DR+. T cell receptor α/β and γ/δ were undetectable. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) particles were seen on SALT-3 cells by electron microscopic analysis. HTLV-I gag p19, proviral DNA and mRNA of HTLV-I genes were also detected in the cells. Chromosome analysis showed abnormal karyotypes as 47, XY, partial trisomy of No. 3 chromosome, and trisomy of No. 7 chromosome. Furthermore, SALT-3 were susceptible to the infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the cells were rapidly killed after HIV-1 infection. This newly established HTLV-I-infected human T cell line would be a useful tool to study biological activities of atypical type of ATL cells and to examine the cytotoxic effects of HIV-1 and it's modulators.
Fetal blood flow velocity waveforms of the middle cerebral artery were measured by pulsed Doppler ultrasound in 43 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (33 class B, 3 class C, 6 class D and 1 class R). The recordings were performed between 24 and 38 weeks of gestation. A total of 122 recordings were analyzed prior to establishing the resistance index (RI=peak systolic velocity minus diastolic velocity/peak systolic velocity). The mean maternal serum glucose was 124.3 mg/dl (range: 72.7 to 281.5 mg/dl), the mean hemoglobin Alc was 6.03% (range: 3.3 to 11.0%) and the mean fructosamine level was 255.97 μmol/L (range: 205 to 397 μmol/L). The resistance index did not differ between the fetuses of the diabetic mothers in our study population. Additionally, no significant correlation was noted between RI values and serum glucose levels (r=0.03), hemoglobin Alc levels (r=0.13) or fructosamine levels (r=0.04) during the period of 26 to 34 gestational weeks. These data indicate that the RI within the fetal cerebral artery is unaffected by the maternal glycemic control when mean serum glucose levels are below 280 mg/dl.
The effect of neurokinin A (NKA) on neurons of bullfrog dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in primary culture was examined by using wholecell patch-clamp methods. Application of NKA (1 μM) depolarized the DRG neurons, resulting in spontaneous firing of action potentials. Under voltageclamp condition, NKA (3 nM-1μM) caused an inward current (INKA) associated with decreased membrane conductance. The INKA reversed its polarity at the equilibrium potential for K+. The INKA was blocked by extracellular Ba2+ (1 mM) but not by nominally 0 mM Ca2+, tetraethylammonium (40 mM), 4-aminopyridine (2 mM) or apamin (50 nM). Intracellular Cs+ blocked the INKA· NKA depressed a voltage-dependent on-inactivating K+ current, the Mcurrent (IM), at potentials more positive than -55 mV. NKA reduced the max-imum M-conductance '(GM) without changing the kinetics of M-channels. NKA also depressed a voltage- and time-independent background K+ current, IK(B). It is concluded that the INKA is produced by suppression of both IM and IK(B) in bullfrog primary afferent neurons.
In an attempt to identify the antigens expressed on human myeloid leukemia cells, two murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) designated as MCS-1 (isotype; IgG3) and MCS-2 (IgG1) were raised. MCS-1 reacted with peripheral blood granulocytes, but not with monocytes, whereas MCS-2 reacted with both granulocytes and monocytes. The incidence of MCS-1 and MCS-2 reactivity with the cells from a total of 121 patients with various type of leukemias was as follows: 25/46 (54%) and 39/47 (83%) in acute myeloblastic leukemia and acute monoblastic leukemia, 8/16 and 16/16 in chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic crisis (CML-BC) of myeloid type, 0/7 and 2/7 in CML-BC of lymphoid type, 0/26 and 2/32 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 7/7 and 7/7 in chronic phase of CML, respectively. Two cases of MCS-2 positive ALL had a Philadelphia chromosome marker (Ph1). In contrast, neither MCS-1 nor MCS-2 reacted with lymphocytes or any of leukemic and non-leukemic lymphoid cell lines tested. These results indicate that MCS-1 and MCS-2 mAb recognized two different differentiation antigens expressed on granulocytes and monocytes. These mAb would be useful reagents to determine differentiation antigens on the cells in granulocyte and monocyte lineage.