Tyrosinase activity was manometrically assayed by measuring the rate of Oxygen consumption in dopa-substrate with Warburg's apparatus. The inhibitory effect to tyrosinase with Placenta Extract was tested through the above method and 20 percent to the original activity was inhibited by Placenta Extract. Furthermore, the activity of this enzyme was measured in tyrosin-substrate by the same method and at the initial step of the reaction, 60 Percent to the original activity was inhibited by Placenta Extract. From the above results, we recognized that the reaction processed from Tyrosin to Dopd was extremely inhibited by Placental Extract.
The purpose of this study was to scientifically characterize the gloss and transparency properties of the living skin surface for substantiating cosmetic efficacy. For this purpose, authors developed the measuring methods and instruments, corresponding to sensory skin evaluation of cosmetic users. The chart of “Microscopic Luster Meter” denoted the clear difference between bare skin and treated skin with lotion. By this methods, we can measure the gloss effect of the skin surface which was treated with many types of lotion and cream. The “Skin Transparency Meter” we developed can denote the transparancy effect of the surface of treated skin. Moreover, we can measured the skin color of inner side of upperarm of about 250 women in several districts of Japan. It was substantiated that the whiteness of bare skin of testing-panelist had relation to the UV-Ray quantity of the districts where they are living.
Effects of blending hydrophobic surfactants and polar oils on PIT (Phase Inversion Temperature) and emulsifying power were studied. PIT increased by blending paraffin wax and decreased by blending ester oil and showed a minimum by blending triglycerides. The effect of adding batyl alcohol on PIT was bigger than glyceryl mono stearate in mineral oil and smaller in polar oil. Stearic acid and cetanol gave a little effect on PIT but a large effect on emulsifying power. On containing stearic acid and cetanol fine emulsion was obtained at wider HLB range.
A method for quantitative measurement of cold sensation evoked by menthol was studied by the discharge of cold fibres in the lingual nerve and the scrotal nerve in response to the application of menthol to the tongue and the scrotum in rats. 1. The evoked responses of cold fibres from the lingual nerve and the scrotal nerve increased linearly with increasing the concentration of menthol in log scale. However, at a higher concentration of menthol the evoked response decreased; >10-4g/ml in the tongue, >10-3g/ml in the scrotum. 2. The sensitivity of cold fibres in the scrotal nerve to menthol was approximately 1/10 of that of cold fibres in the lingual nerve. The latency of onset response of cold fibres to menthol was longer in the scrotal nerve than in the lingual nerve. 3. The responses of cold fibres to menthol were decreased by ethanol or surfactant (triethanolamine alkyl sulfates) in comparison with the control responses. In short, the results demonstrate that this electrophysiological method in rat may be useful for quantitative measurement of cold sensation evoked by menthol.
Making interfafial film strong is well known as one of the best methods of stabilizing emulsion, however, not any one of good method to estimate the degree of the strength of the interfacial film quantitively has been reported so far. The purpose of the present work is to propose the simple estimation method of interfacial film strength. The emulsion is added into solvent which cannot mix with it, stirred, and evaluated its breakdown ratio. We dispersed w/o emulsion in water and measured the breakdown ratio change with time of its w/o droplet. The breakdown ratio was well correlated with the obse vation with done b polarized microsccpy and electron microscopy of lipophilic surfactants saturated with water. Water in oil emulsion of low breakdown ratio can be prepared with surfactants which got optical anisotropy when water was saturated. From ESR measurment we also knew that the more rigid the interfacial film, the more stable the w/o droplet. When we compared the change of breakdown ratio with storage stability, longer mixing time was needed to have good agreement. From these results, we conclude that the quantitative estimation of flexibility of an interfacial film and of orientatation of surfactants at the interface could be made successfully according to present method.
Methods for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in cosmetics and raw materials were studied by conventional analytical instruments. The colorimetric method was attempted first, but pretreatment of sample was not complete, we couldn't obtain a good result. Gas chromatography combined with electron capture detectior (ECD-GC) was useful and sensitive method for determining low level of NDELA in cosmetics. The detection limit was about 10ppb. NDELA in triethanolamine was directly analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography and UV detection (UV-HPLC). NDELA in cosmetics was first separated by normal phase HPLC followed by quantitation using reverse phase HPLC. The detection limit was about 200ppb. This method which eliminates or minimizes sample preparation and extraction/concentration steps should be applied to many cosmetics.
For the purpose of checking the quality and eliminating the contact allergenic property of Quinoline Yellow WS, analyses and purification of the dye were carried out as follows. (1) Sulfonated sites of six main derivatives in commercial dyes were clarified by field desorption mass spectrometory, 13C-NMR and 400MHz1H-NMR. Samples commercially available from Japan (as Yellow No. 203) and from GFR (as E 104) were analyzed by HPLC. The following compounds were determined as main components: 2-(2′-quinolyl)-1, 3-indandion-5, 6′, 8′-trisulfonic acid, 2-(2′-quinolyl)-1, 3-indandion-5, 6′-disulfonic acid, 2-(2′-quinolyl)-1, 3-indandion-5, 8′-disulfonic acid and/or 2-(2′quinolyl)-1, 3-indandion-6′-methyl-5, 8′-disulfonic acid. Their total colors were 39.7-70.9%. Dyes of USA (as D & C Yellow No. 10), on the other hand, mainly contained 2-(2′-quinolyl)-1, 3-indandion-6′-sulfonic acid and 2-(2′-quinolyl)-1, 3-indandion-8′-sulfonic acid, and their total colors were 82.0-88.0%. (2) Analysis by HPLC indicated that commercial dyes contained 0.11-170ppm Quinoline Yellow SS, which showed contact sensitivity at the concentration of about 0.1ppm. (3) During the purifying procedure of the commercial dye, Quinoline Yellow SS decreased below 0.01ppm, and total color increased to above 90%. (4) Quinoline Yellow SS was scarcely produced from Quinoline Yellow WS by desulfonation in diluted acids.
A pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometric method for the identification of polysaccharides is described. The pyrolysis of these polymers was carried out at 590°C by the Curie Point Pyrolyser in helium atmosphere and 27 decomposition products were identified by comparing their retention times and mass spectra with their authentic samples. The profiles of pyrolysis chromatograms and the composition of breakdown products were specific for each polymer and related to the chemical structure. Multiple ion mass chromatograms were shown to be useful for exploring the characteristic differences between polysaccharides.
Beeswax is usually refined and deodourized by the method of steam distillation. However, deodourization cannot be done completely in this way because of phenomenon of so-called re-odouring. Some of the odour ingredients or the other unstable chemical components which cannot be removed by the method of steam distillation, react with oxygen gradually after refining of beeswax. This reaction brings phenomenon of re-odouring. We have observed lapse of change of the quality of refined beeswax deodourized by centrifugal molecular still method for these seven years, however no phenomenon of re-odouring stated as the above have been detected till now, because some of the odour ingredients or the other unstable chemical components had been completely removed by the method of centrifugal molecular still. This review will discuss the results of study of industrial beeswax which is not spoiled of good trait in natural beeswax and has no phenomenon of re-odouring low boiling volatiles of beeswax, some of the odour ingredients or the other unstable chemical components were studied using the combination methds of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-odour assessment. 55 compounds, including 13 hydrocarbons, 15 aldehydes, 5 alcohols, 6 ketones, 9 acids, 4 lactones, were conclusively identified.
The column selection is one of the most important matter for the gas chromatographic analysis of flavor and fragrance materials, and essential oils. The glass capillary columns give a highest resolution, especially a fused silica capillary column performs excellent resolution. Using the retention index system, qualitative gas chromatographic analysis gives a quite satisfactlory result.