日本生態学会誌
Online ISSN : 2424-127X
Print ISSN : 0021-5007
ISSN-L : 0021-5007
11 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 大竹 昭郎
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 51-58
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) In the spring of 1958,a series of observations were made on the populations of Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae every fourth or fifth day in a cabbage garden, at Nogi, Matsue City, in which the aphid populations had already been observed once in 1956. A bulbed cabbage selected for observation was, for convenience sake, divided into the following three parts : (A) was the central part in which the leaves bulbed up ; (C) was the outer part in which the undersurface of the leaves faced directly toward the soil ; (B) was the part between (A) and (C). From each of Parts B and C, two leaves were cut off at random, and the whole individuals of M. persicae and B. brassicae living on them were collected and preserved in alcohol. In the case of B. brassicae, the number of its colonies on each leaf was recorded in advance of the collection. (No observation was made on Part A where few aphids had been found). Then the developmental stages of the aphids collected were individually determined by their antennal length and other characters (Figs. 1 and 2). Aphids mummied in consequence of being parasitized were taken into glass tubes for obtaining parasites from them. (2) The following results were the same as from the observation in 1956 : (a) The habitat segregation of these two species on a plant : in M. persicae, the population growing in Part C was always larger than that in Part B, while in B. brassicae it was conspicuously smaller (Table 1). (b) A time lag between M. persicae and B. brassicae in their coming into the garden : in the former, many of adults were apterae, the progeny of alates which had come flying into the garden, even at the beginning of the observation, while in the latter it was not until the end of May that apterae surpassed alates in number (Table 1). (3) B. brassicae increased in number much more rapidly than M. persicae, and at last on the 3rd of June, attained about eight times the number of the latter (Table 1 and Fig. 3). (4) In either species, the ratio of adults to the whole individuals collected was rather stable every observation day and its value, with a few exceptions, was about 10 per cent (Fig. 4). (5) It was assumed that the aphid populations increased exponentially on and after the 16th of May, and values of the coefficient of their growth were calculated (the slope of the straight lines drawn in Fig. 5). In the case of B. brassicae, the value obtained from Part C was much higher than that from Part B. The main reason for it, the writer thinks, was that in the latter half of May, as seen in Table 1,more than half of the adults living in Part B consisted of alates, most of which perhaps had been already aged and very low in their fecundity, while aduits found in Part C were mainly apterae, many of which were supposed to be vigorously producing their progeny because it had not been long after their coming to maturity. Either of values of the coefficient concerning M. persicae was lower than that concerning B. brassicae in Part B. This may be explicable if we assume that the mobility of the former lowers its productivity and urges it to move out from its population. (6) The number of colonies of B. brassicae on cabbage leaves increased in such a way as the number of the aphids forming them did(compare Fig. 7 with Fig. 3). The average number of aphids in a colony tended to be smaller in Part B than in Part C (Fig. 7). (7) Seven species of parasites and hyperparasites were obtained from mummied aphids gathered during the period of this observation ; it seemed that the fauna of parasites relating to B. brassicae was poorer than that relating to M. persicae (Table 2). At any rate, it was clear that the parasites which had not much increased as late as the middle of May failed to control the aphid populations effectively.
  • 鈴木 静夫, 二村 坦孝
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 59-62
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Ecological studies on microbes were carried out in the Akanuma Lake Group of Volcano Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture. The lake waters showed strong acidity of pH 3.8〜4.4 and contained large amounts of mineral elements. The bacteria were counted 5〜50/cc in the water and 0.5〜150×10^4/g in the bottom mud. When the lake waters were inoculated at 30℃ for 24 hours, the bacteria increased 330〜14000 times the initial amounts in Lake Kokenuma, Hyotannuma and Aodoronuma. But no multiplication of bacteria was observed in the lake water of Lake Akanuma. The bacteria of acidotrophic lakes flourished in the lake waters of the Akanuma Group, while that of the harmonic lakes showed no increase. The zoospores of aquatic Phycomycetes were very abundant in Lake Akanuma and Hyotannuma. Saprolegnia monoica var. acidamica, which showed high resistivity against the high concentration of the mineral components, was the only species in these lakes. The frequency of the fungi in the bottom mud ranged from 70 to 100 per cent to the total mud samples. The fungi were counted to be 250〜3500/1 in the water and 1000〜2000/g in the bottom mud. The species of the fungi were relatively scarce compared with that of the harmonic lakes. The lakes of the Akanuma Group belong to the typical acidotrophic type. The community of microbe was very scarce in quantity as well as in quality.
  • 佳山 良正
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 62-66
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Instead of expressing the dominance in a plant community by the degree of the angle constructed from [numerical formula] diagram, a method of representing it by the area of a triangle constructed from that diagram is described in this paper. The area of a triangle is computed by the intersected length of the straight line and two axes. Two lines of different species in drawn separately on the same system of coordinate at one point in the first plane. The angle formed by these intersected straight lines is regarded as the degree of competition of two species by the author. The dominancesubordination relationship of two species is indicated by the degree of competition.
  • Katsuji TSUNEKI
    原稿種別: Article
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 66-75
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 渡辺 仁治
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 75-82
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー

    The type of seasonal change of water color in the ponds under consideration are classified into two categories from the chromatological point of view. I compared the ponds of type A with those of type B on the basis of seasonal change of phytoplankton-flora and its population. This classification of the types A and B was made on the basis of whether the locate point x, y, of the water color approaches to the Illuminant C in June. The plankton flora and its population in the period when the locate point of water color approaches to the Illuminant C is discussed below. This period is June and December in the ponds of type A and December in type B. (1) In both types of ponds, the population of Chlorophyceae was large and that of Cyanophyceae was small during the winter, and the plankton-flora consisting chiefly of Scenedesmus occurred continuously during this period. In the pond of type A, Chlorophyceae were dominant not only in winter but also in the middle or the end of June. It is, therefore, considered that the phenomenon, on which the chromaticity coordinates of water color approaches to the Illuminant C, was caused by the large increase of Chlorophyceae and the decrease of Cyanophyceae in all seasons. In such occasions, the water color becomes generally dark olive and the values of brightness and excitation purity of water color are always low ; this will be explained by the small plankton population in this period. After December, the water colors in both types of ponds become gradually bright olive and their locate points x, y, leave the Illuminant C accompanied with the rich production of Chlorophyceae. This fact that the locus of water color runs almost parallel with the isodominant wave-length's line on the C.I.E. Chromaticity diagram is, I think, caused by the change of quantity of Chlorophyceae, especially of Scenedesmus. When Chlorophyceae increases, the water color becomes bright olive ; when it decreases, the water color becomes dark olive. This phenomenon means that the seasonal change of water color in this period is caused by the change of its brightness and excitation purity within certain limits of the hue. (2) The locus of water color on the C.I.E. Chromaticity diagram during the period, with the exception of certain months mentioned in the above section (1), runs almost parallel with the spectralocus. This phenomenon is found during the period from May to November except June in the ponds of type A, and is found through the period from April to November in the ponds of type B. In this period, Aphanocapsa, Microcystis, Merismopedia, Lyngbya and Anabaena become dominant in all the gold-fish ponds, and populations of such blue-green algae are extremely large, and many of them become also neuston, floating in the upper layer of the water. There fore, the water color in this period is caused chiefly by the reflected light by neuston, so that the brightness and the excitation purity of water color in this period is always high. On the other hand, the hue of the water color in this period changes between yellowish green and olive by the change of quantity of Cyanophyceae. The above results show the following facts concerning the mechanism of the appearance of water color in the gold-fish ponds. (a) When Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae) increases and becomes dominant, the locus of water color on the C.I.E. Chromaticity diagram runs almost parallel with the isodominant wavelength's line accompanied with the variability of its population. (b) When Cyanophyceae increases and Chlorophyceae decreases, the locus of the water color runs almost parallel with the spectralocus accompanied with the variability of Cyanophyceae population. (c) As the algal population increases in the ponds, the brightness and the excitation purity of water color become generally high. This tendency is remarkable in the period when Chlorophyceae increases. From both the chromatological a

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  • 森谷 清樹
    原稿種別: 本文
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 82-86
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    According to the previous studies, the pollen income to the honeybee colony varies seasonally and increases parallel to the upswing of brood rearing. This fact suggests that some regulative functions act to increase the number of pollen-foragers. As the first step to analyse such probable regulation, the diurnal and seasonal variations of the number of pollen-foragers were observed correspondent to the population growth of a single honeybee colony. The counts were made about weekly from late April to mid September on the days of favorable weather conditions in 1959. The number of homing bees and pollen-foragers among them were counted at the hive entrance from 8 : 00 to 17 : 00 for 10 minutes at intervals of an hour. The population growth was estimated by BODENHEIMER' smethod and corrected by NICKEL-ARMBRUSTER's death rate. The results are summarized as follows : 1) Except under unfavorable weather condition, the pollen-foragers were always more abundant in the forenoon than in the afternoon, while other homing bees were often more abundant in the afternoon than in the afternoon. 2) From the records taken during 10 : 00 to 10 : 10 a.m., the fluctuation of the number of homing bees was more conspicuous than that of the pollen-foragers. The number of homing bees corresponded in general to that of more than 10 days old bees (potential foragers) but the number of pollen-foragers showed no such correlation. 3) The ratio of the pollen-foragers to the homing bees was high during early spring, early June, early July and late summer, except early spring and late summer, the periods being approximate to that of rapid increases of the eggs laid. 4) Consequently, it is assumed that the foraging efficiency is determined by 1) the duration of a single pollen-foraging trip, 2) the trip number per day and 3) the weight of each pollen loads foraged, being variable according to seasons and kind of pollen sources and that from the result 3 mentioned above, a regulative mechanism to change the workers into the pollen-foragers occurred in the honeybee colony.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 86-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. 87-90
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
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  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. Cover3-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1961 年 11 巻 2 号 p. Cover4-
    発行日: 1961/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
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