日本生態学会誌
Online ISSN : 2424-127X
Print ISSN : 0021-5007
ISSN-L : 0021-5007
21 巻 , 1-2 号
(1・2)
選択された号の論文の25件中1~25を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 和子
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 1-7
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Das Untersuchungsareal liegt im Nordost der Hauptinsel Kyusyu, d.h. Sudwestjapan und umfaβt das Nordkyusyu-Gebirgsgebiet, das Mittelkyusyu-Vulkangebiet und das Kyusyu-Gebirgsgebiet. Die Erdgeschichten der drel Gebieten sind voneinander recht eigenartig, denn das erste Gebiet gehort zum inneren Bogen und das dritte zum auβeren, wahrend das zweite aus dem Phleistzon-Vulkanismus entstanden ist. Fast pararell zu dieser geotektonischen Landes-unterteilung herrscht das Sommerregenklima der pazifischen Gegend auf dem dritten Gebiet vor. Das Schnee treibende Wintermonsun wird hier durch die Koreanische Halbinsel geschutzt, aber dadurch ist die Wintertrockenhelt in hoheren Lagen etwas vermindert (die Indexen des Klimas des Japanischen Meers vergroβert). Inzwischen tritt eine hohe Sommertrockenheit im zweiten Gebiet auf (Vergroβerung der Setouti-Indexen). Die Zahl der indessen untersuchten Pflanzengesellschaten belauft sich auf 27 Vegetationstypen. Wenn man diese 27 Gesellschaften den verschiedenen Bodenbeschaffenheiten nach anordnet, so kann man die fast miteinander ubereinstimmenden pararellen Reihen erlangen (Abb. 3-6). Obgleich Unregelmaβigkeiten in der Ordnung bisweilen im Zwischenbereich vorkommen, stehen die extremen Exemplare immer gleich. Aus dem Verlauf der Reihen teilen sich diese 27 Gesellschaften in vier Gruppen unter. Die erste Gruppe hat die niedrigsten pH-Werte und schlieβt das Maianthemo-Rhododendretum kiusiani mit seinem Subassoziation vaccinietosum und Rhododendro metternichii-Fagetum ein. Zur zweiten Gruppe gehoren 6 Assoziationen, welche das Sasamorpho-Fagetum crenatae einschlieβen. Die dritte Gruppe begreift 9 verschiedene Assoziationen aus den hugelichen und submontanen Stufen. Die andere extreme, d.h. vierte Gruppe konzentriert sich im pazifischen Kustengebiet, wo die pH-Werte am hochsten angezeigt sind. Der niedrigste pH-Wert stimmt mit hoheren Humusgehalt und dunklerer Bodenfarbe uberein. Es ist zwar sicher, daβ die saueren Humussubstanzen die niedrigen pH-Werte verursachen, aber im Maianthemo-Rhododendretum kiusiani und seinen Subassoziationen vaccinietosum soll die Ursache auch den Dampfen aus den Sulfataren zukommen. Unter den Kieferwaldern kann das Rhododendro kaempferi-Pinetum auf den lockeren Vulkanaschboden nicht bestehen, aber es findet sich wohl auf den festen Tuffen. Sudlich von der Groβmediane, wo das Land erdgeschichtlich viel alter ist, wird diese Assozistion mit dem Rhododendro sikokiani-Pinetum ersetzt. Der Shiia sieboldi-Wald ist mit dem Bladhio-Shiietum nordlich von der Saganoseki-Halbinsel vertreten, aber sudlich davon mit dem Rapanaeo-Shiietum ersetzt. Auβerhalb des Kustengebietes dominiert Shiia cuspidata anstatt der vorigen Art. Im Vulkangebiet wird dieser Shiia-Wald nordlich von der Groβmediane mit dem Ophiopogoni-Cyclobalanopsetum glaucae ersetzt. Shiia cuspidata wachst wahrscheinlich auf den vulkanischen Boden, was aber noch nicht als allgemein gllt. Nordostlich von der Kunisaki-Halbinsel, wo die Sommertrockenheit mehr oder weniger verschwindet, tritt das Symploco-Shiietum cuspidatae lucidetosum uppig auf.
  • Sei-ichi OOHATA, Tsunahide SHIDEI
    原稿種別: Article
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 7-14
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    The structural features of non-photosynthetic organs in some tree species were analysed in relation to the basic theory of quantitative geomorphology of channel networks in drainage basins. Although Horton's law in channel networks was found to satisfy the branch networks of trees, branch networks resulting of many forms of life were different from those of geomorphology in the distribution of parts. The following conclusions were deduced from the resultant features of branch networks in comparison with the bifurcation ratio of channel networks. 1) The bifurcation ratio of networks of branches in Horton's law showed a considerable variation from 3.0 to 8.0,the range being larger in trees than in wateraheds. 2) One species of a young Quercus tree had some stable value of the bifurcation ratio in the different conditions of environment. 3) The values of the bifurcation ratio of trees were divided into several groups by the life form of the tree species. 4) The determination as to which bifurcation ratio of the four fell was interpreted as the differences of the size of space of the first order branch which was the small branch with leaves at the point of the bough, and the differences of shade tolerance of leaves by which the small branches make use of the limited space for the branches.
  • D. Ramdeo K
    原稿種別: Article
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 14-17
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. To study the imbibition and germination of seeds of Leucaena glauca, various experiments were conducted. 2. It was observed on the basis of preliminary laboratory tests that germination was 1 to 2 per cent and there was seed coat dormancy. 3. Mechanical and acid scarifications of seeds have helped the growing radicle to emerge out of hard seed testa. 4. Once the seed coat is abraded and thus open space is provided to radicle, they germinate fully under all the tried conditions of light (i) intensities (ii) quality (iii) ultra violet radiations and (iv) temperature.
  • Tadaki HIROSE
    原稿種別: Article
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 18-32
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    An attempt was made to specify the sessonal patterns of dry-matter production and nitrogen assimilation of a Solidago altissima population, with special reference to the method. The population as a whole was regarded as a pool of matter (dry matter or nitrogen), the size of which (standing crop, S) grows or declines as the resultant of changes of the rates of inflow (R_<in>) and outflow (R_<out>) of matter. These quantities-S, R_<in>, R_<out>-were determined seasonally. "Turnover rates" (r_<in>, r_<out>), ratios of the inflow and outflow rates to the standing crop, were calculated. The fact that turnover rates of nitrogen are much lower than those of dry matter suggests that nitrogen is more efficiently utilized than dry matter for the population growth by its recycling in the plant body. This was substantiated by determining the matter mobilization between component organs. Finally, "nitrogen utility index" (NUI) as the dry-matter productivity of a unit amount of nitrogen newly absorbed was introduced to elucidate the relationship between dry-matter production and nitrogen assimilation of the plant population.
  • 安藤 滋, 小笠原 昭夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 32-36
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    A wild pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, ♀, 720 grams) was tracked by radio-telemetry at Karuizawa, Nagano Prefecture for seven days in late July and early August 1968. A transmitter (34.6 grams including antenna and battery) was attached to the pheasant with a harness (2.9 grama) made of vinyl-coated cloth. The total weight of the attached instruments was 5.2 percent of the weight of the bird. The direction of the pheasant was measured at three points every 30 minutes from sunrise to sunset during the period, and the location was plotted on the map as the centre of gravity of the triangle constructed by three direction lines from the messured points. The moving range of the bird changed every day, from 160 to 450m in diameter. The total range of the seven days was 870×280m. The location of the roost also changed every night, but it was always under a shrub in the open field. The bird was observed to fly only three times in the period when driven out by a man, a dog, and a cat. It can be guessed that the pheasants hardly fly in an undisturbed condition.
  • 桐田 博充
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 37-42
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Besides the amount of KOH (M) as CO_2-absorbent and the duration of the measurement (t) which were dealt with in the preceding paper (KIRITA & HOZUMI 1966), the surface area of KOH solution (s) and the basal area of 'cover' (S) were found to be the principal factors influencing the rates of CO_2-absorption observed by Walter-Haber's absorption method. The rates were hardly influenced by other size factors of the apparatus such as the height of 'cover' (H), the depth of the lower end of 'cover' buried in soil (H′), and the aboveground height of the surface of KOH solution (h), only if the apparatus satisfied the conditions that H&gnE;8cm, H′&gnE;5cm and h<25cm. The rate of CO_2-absorption corrected for the influences of M and t, or v_t, was not proportional to the area of the test soil surface (S), but tended to saturate with the increase of S. The v_i-S relation also turned out to be a similar hyperbolic curve. The formulation, (1/v_t)=(A_1/S)+B and (1/v_t)=(A_2/s)+B′, was proposed based on a flow-resistance model and proved to fit the experimental results satisfactorily.
  • 桐田 博充
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 43-47
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of the two most influential factors, ground area covered by the apparatus (S) and surface area of KOH solution (s), on CO_2-absorption rates was tested for various combinations of the two factors. The combined effect was closely approximated by the resistance formula, 1/v_i=(a_1/S)+(a_2/s), where v_i is the observed rate of CO_2-absorption corrected for the effect of time-dependent weakening of the absorbent solution. The real rate of soil respiration, free from the influence of the size of the apparatus, could be estimated by putting S→0 and s→∞ in the formula, or R=v_i/S)_(s→0,s→∞)=1/a1. Comparison of this formula with the already established single-factor equation, 1/v_t=(A_1/S)+B, led to the conclusion that a_1=A_1 and that R can be obtained by the latter equstion only if the v_t-S relation is experimentally determined.
  • 植松 辰美
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 48-51
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    A preliminary experiment in the social facilitation of the feeding behavior of the guppy, Poecilia (Lebistes) reticulata PETERS is reported. Before the experiment, single or grouped (2 or 4 individuals) fish were placed in a basket without food for at least 24 hrs. and the transferred to an experimental basket where they were maintained quietly for at least 3 hrs. At the begining of the experiment, 120 individuals of Daphnia pulex LEYDIG (0.85〜1.00mm) per fish were thrown into the basket. The feeding rates of the guppies were shown by the numbers of Daphnia eaten during the experimental period of 2 hrs. The results obtained are as follows : 1. A clear social facilitation phenomenon of feeding behavior was observed, that is, significant differences were observed among 1,2-and 4-grouped fish in the feeding rates per individual and per 100mg body weight. 2. The female ate more than the male in all cases, although the difference was not fully ascertained statistically. 3. In order to show the social facilitation in feeding increments in the grouped fish a new index, the Facilitation Rate (FR), was considered. This was calculated by (GF-IF)×100/IF. in which, GF is the mean amount of food eaten by a grouped fish and IF is that eaten by an isolated fish. In this experiment, the FR in 2-and 4-grouped guppies were 8.4 and 22.5 percent respectively. 4. Several descriptions on the same phenomenon have been reported for several other species, which suggest that this phenomenon is generally observed in schooling fish species. 5. In this paper, an inclusive definition on the social facilitation in animals is proposed and, then two or three hypothetical courses introduced through which the social facilitation is induced- 'the presence recognition effect' resulted from the simple recognition of the existence of the companion and the feeding behavior recognition effect' induced through the same feeding behavior of the companion which are 'the companion recognition effect', and 'the learning effect' by imitation or learning.
  • L.N. VYAS, S.K. AGARWAL, M.P.S. RANAWAT
    原稿種別: Article
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 52-54
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Estimation of the above-ground biomass in three important tree species of dry deciduous forests of Udaipur (Rajasthan) is presented. The tree species selected for the investigation are Annona squamosa Linn., Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. and Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. The area of study is the Chirva forest, situated 10 km north of Udaipur town. From the study it is concluded that in all the three species, the height of tree, girth at breast height and net above-ground biomass increases with an increase in the number of growth rings. The accumulation of the biomass is the highest in D. cordifolia and the lowestin A. squamosa. The trend of the biomass accumulation is correlated with the amount of photosynthetic area.
  • 植松 辰美
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 54-67
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this part, the experimental analyses of the mechanisms of the social facilitation in feeding behavior of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata PETERS, are reported. The feeding rate was shown by the numbers of Daphnia pulex LEYDIG eaten during 2 hrs. The results obtained are as follows : 1. The social facilitation in the feeding behavior of the guppy was mainly evoked by visual stimuli. 2. The social facilitation of the feeding behavior in the guppy is likely to be the process by 'the presence recognition effect', rather than that induced by 'the learning effect' or 'the feeding behavior recognition effect'. 3. The size, number of individuals and movement of companions were effective as stimuli, and an increase in quantity of stimulus facilitated the feeding behavior. But, sex, body form, coloration and position of the companion had no or, if any, a very limitted value as a stimulus. 4. The fact that an increase of the feeding behavior resulted from the size and number of companions suggests the facilitation by 'the presence recognition effect' caused by the sensophysiological process. 5. The feeding rate increased as the number of stimulators increased up to 3,but never increased with more than 3 stimulators. Referring to literatures, the discrimination among the companion's numbers of 1,2 and more than 3,observed here, may be applicable in schooling fish species. 6. Lastly, a general view on some concepts on the social facilitation was given, and the meaning of 'the presence recognition effect' and application of the three processes to schooling fish specles were discussed.
  • 須永 哲雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 67-70
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    A series of experiments using the juvenile guppy (Poecilia reticulata) was made under laboratory condition to examine how the feeding rate of a fish can be affected by the intensity of food selection. Throughout the experiments, the guppy was placed in a 2-liter nylon screen basket suspended into a glass aquarium. Alive speciments of Daphnia pulex cultured in the laboratory and Cyclops vicinus collected from a reservoir were filtrated with a nylon screen net (1.2mm in mesh). The filtrated plankters were mixed in various ratios and supplied to the fish. Juvenile guppy seemed to prefer D. pulex more than C. vicinus. It was clearly observed that the feeding rate (number of food specimen in the fish intestine/fish body weight/hour) for D. pulex increased significantly with an increase in number of the plankters supplied. In the case of C. vicinus such an increased of feeding rate as in the former species was not observed, and the feeding rate increased in accordance with the decrease of number of D. pulex given together. The total feeding rate (sum of D. pulex and C. vicinus) of guppy increased accompanied by the increase of the total number of plankters supplied. And the greater the proportion of D. pulex to C. vicinus in plankters supplied, the higher the total feeding rate occurred.
  • Ryuichi SUDO, Shuichi AIBA
    原稿種別: Article
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 70-76
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    1) A sophisticated procedure was established by using a lettuce-egg yolk (abbreviated as LE-medium) to isolate and/or to stock Vorticellidae from activated sludge, whereas another medium for stocking heterogeneous bacterial population as "food" of the protozoa was prescribed from the sludge extract (SE-medium). 2) The specific growth rates, μ_x, observed with the heterogeneous bacteria as "food" were 3.3,2.2 and 1.8 day^<-1> at 20℃ for Vorticella microstoma, Vorticella convallaria and Carchesium polypinum, respectively. 3) Vorticella microstoma was dominant in the specific sludge, from which heterogeneous bacteria were "extracted as food" to determine the values of μ_x mentioned above. 4) The optimum temperature of cultivation for Vorticella microstoma was around 25℃, and the activation energy with respect to μ_x was estimated as 18,300 cal/mole. 5) Using Vorticella microstoma as "indicator" of the activated-sludge plant operation in Tokyo area, the value of μ_x for each sludge was assessed ; the value extended from 0.62 to 0.45 day^<-1>, nearly one-fifth to one-seventh of that obtained with a monoxenic culture of Vorticella microstoma.
  • 鈴木 時夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 76-77
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 時夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 77-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山本 護太郎
    原稿種別: Article
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 77-79
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 中村 方子
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 79-80
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 川那部 浩哉
    原稿種別: 本文
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. 80-86
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. iii-iv
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. v-vi
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1971 年 21 巻 1-2 号 p. Cover3-
    発行日: 1971/05/31
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
feedback
Top