In this paper the range of the following species of hepatics is treated. 11. Frullanta densiloba STRPH. The species was established by STEPHANI based upon specimens from two localities (Mt. Konomine and Mt. Ishizuchi) in Shikoku. At present there are 64 specimens of Frullania densiloba in our herbarium. They were examined by the writer. In this paper the species will be published for the first time from the five prefectures, of Shizuoka (1), Kyoto (1), Tokushima (1), Nagasaki (2), Kumamoto (2), and new localities will be added to the prefectures of Tokyo (1), Hiroshima (3), Ehime (3), Kochi (5), Miyazaki (4), Kagoshima (2). Map 11 has been prepared based on 66 localities (29 of these localities are new additions and 39 were previously known). As shown in map 11,the northernmost limit of the species in question lies at the Senzu National Forest (35°17´L.N.)in Shizuoka Prefecture and its southernmost limit is at Isi. Botel-Tabago(22°L.N.)in Formosa. With regard to the nature of the substrata, the habitats of 55 closely recorded specimens were examined, the number of specimens collected on tree-trunks is 52 (95%), while those collected on rocks is only 3 (5%)as shown in table 11. From an analysis of the corticolous nature of the host trees with respect to the six districts of the Japanese Islands, it was found that the percentages of specimens on ever-green broad-leaved trees gradually decreases towards the north, from 100%→43%, whereas those on coniferous trees gradually increases, from 36%→100%. [table] The results of macrofrequency in each district are shown in table 12. As seen in this table, the values of macrofrequency in the region from Formosa to Shikoku are generally equal, but that of M. Honshiu becomes suddenly smaller. [table] According to our knowledge, the highest elevation is on Yakushima Island where it ascends to 1550m above sea level and its lowest elevation at Nishidani in Kochi prefecture where it descends to 220m. Geographic distribution, Japan, Liukius, Formosa.
In the present paper is given the results of investigation made during the period from middle May through early December of 1953,on the composition and seasonal succession of insect association in the young apple orchard, mostly from the synecological standpoint. Although only 16 species were found, the fauna can be divided into twocharacteristic associations ; one is the apple leafcurling aphid (Myzus malisuctus MATSUMURA) association which includes some of Lyonetia prunifoliella HUBNER. As is shown in Figure 2,in successive weekly catches, a linear distribution of the logarithms of individual number of each species according to their ranks in number was ascertained ; MOTOMURA'S formula (1932), therefore, is applicable when we explain the relationship between the populations composing the association in the young apple orchard. By means of the correlation method given by MOTOMURA in 1935,the seasonal variation of association was studied. As is clear from Figure 5,the apple leaf-curling aphid association is formed during the period from June to September, and from October to December there is composed the apple leaf miner association having a characteristic simple formation. The influence of environmental factors to the association, has not been fully analysed in this survey.
Okinoshima is a small island lying off the coast of the southwestern extremity of Shikoku. The island is about 20km in circumference and mainly consists of granite. The highest peak is Mt. Imose rising 404.1m above sea-level. The average annual temperature is 17.1℃, and the annual rain fall amounts to 1846.9mm. Herein is reported an outline of a vegetational survey of this island as compared with that of the southwestern part of the mainland of Shikoku. In Okinoshima the climatic climax forests are scarcely found owing to human activities. There-fore one is obliged to observe the residual fragments of them or the secondary forests. From this survey it is considered that Rapanaeto-Shiietum occupies the greater part of the island and Rumohreto-Machiletum occurs in rather limitted areas. These two associations belong to Rubel's laurisilvae. As typical climax forest of Rapanaeto-Shiietum is not found in this island, Rumohreto-Machiletum is observed as the only residual climatic climax which develops in low altitudes. In this island, Shiia sieboldii is frequently found in the areas of Machiletum and is often dominant in the tree layer. The main sociations of this Machiletum are Machilus thunbergii-Bladhia sieboldii-Alpinia chinensis sociation and Elaeocarpus elliptica-Bladhia sieboldii-Alpinia chinensis sociation. They show rather different structure compared with the same association found at Ashizuri-zaki and Muroto-zaki on the mainland of Shikoku. It seems that this association can be divided into two subassociations, namely, Bladhietosum (Okinoshima) and Podocarpetosum (Ashizuri and Muroto-zaki). Besides the above-mentioned climatic climax forests, the community chiefly dominated by stunted evergeen Quercus phylliraeoides occurs as an topographic climax on rocky places facing the sea. It is perceived that such garigue type communities which are commonly found throughout the coastal districts of Shikoku as well as Okinoshima should be included in the same association.
1. Social behaviors of the killi-fish, with special reference to the territoriality and social hierarchy, were observed in 6 aquaria each having a diameter of 18cm. In each of the aquaria 1,2,3,5,7 and 10 pairs of the fish were released respectively. 2. Fighting occurs between the members of the groups in the aquaria almost throughout the year, even in the winter when the breeding season is over. The fighting behavior is represented in general by a sudden aggression after the approach of an individual towards the other, and a quick retreat of the latter, no mutual aggression taking place. Fighting is observed in both males and females, or even in the sexually immature fishes. 3. The patterns of social behavior differ with the difference of group densities. In the groups of 1 and 2 pairs no territory-holding individual is observed, while in each of the groups of 5,7 and 10 pairs one individual occupies a territory and the others struggle in the remaining space. In the group of 3 pairs such differentiation is obscure, though sometimes a territory-holding individual appears. The fluctuations of fighting frequencies from day to day also differ with the difference of densities, corresponding with the types of social differentiation. 4. A territory is usually established at the bottom of the aquarium, but two or more territories are seen when the space is divided into small parts by weeds. When only one territory is formed, the occupant of the territory is seemingly the most dominant individual in the group and the remaining fishes which have no territory, are subordinate ones. Therefore, it may be said that the formation of the territory is not only affected by the place factor, but also closely related to the dominance hierarchy in the group.
In the previous report, the author discussed the relations between the variations of external factors to the responses of plants. This paper deals with the mode of response of a plant community. The response of a plant community has been defined under the following assumption. That is, the mode of distribution of a component species of a plant community approaches to a random one, such condition is probably proper for the species. As a measure, the deviation of a component species from the mode of distribution of the dominant seems to be most useful for a reflexion of the effective environment of a plant community.
Observations were made on the tidal rhythmic activities of two Japanese limpets, Siphonaria japonica (Pulmonata) and Patelloida saccharina lanx (Prosobranchia) which live in the intertidal zone in the vicinity of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory in the Kii Peninsula. Both species show rhythmic homing with correspondence to the tidal rhythm. At spring-tide, they creep about near the home "scar" twice during a tide, i.e., just before they are exposed to air and immediately after being submerged in water. During neap-tide, when their habitats remain submerged throughout the day, they move only once at the time of low tide. It must be noted the similarity of behavior patterns in these two phylogenetically different limpets seems to me to be caused by the convergence in activity patterns.
The authors studied the stucture and development of the grasslands, which are used for grazing, and mowing artificially by clearing and firing the deciduous broad-leaved forests of the mountain-sides (ca.250-800m above sea-level) in Kurikoma, Kawatabi, Izumi and Zao districts, Miyagi Prefecture. In these grasslands, numerous plant communities are distinguished by differences in their floristic compositions. These may be classified into the following types according to their structures and seral stages : Zoysia japonica-Hydrocotyle ramiflora Type, Z. japonica-Pteridium aquilinum-H. ramiflora", P. aquilinum-Z. japonica-Potentilla Freyniana", P. aquilinum-Miscanthus sinensis-P. Freyniana", M. sinensis-P. aquilinum-P. Freyniana", M. sinensis-P. aquilinum-Lespedeza discolor", M. sinensis-P. aquilinum-Sasa", Sasa-M. sinensis-P. aquilinum", "Hochstaudenflur"(By WARMING and GRAEBNER)".
1. Observations were made on the aquatic oligochaetes obtained from rice seedling beds at 12 different stations in Miyagi Prefecture during the period from May to June, 1953,with the following results : 2. Five species were distinguished, namely, Limnodrilus gotoi, Branchiura sowerbyi, L. willeyi, L. motomurai, and Tubifex hattai. 3. Three types of habitat segregation of the aquatic oligochaetes were recognized as correlating with the mud conditions. 4. Of the five mentioned species, L. gotoi, B. sowerbyi, and L. willeyi, are dominant. L. gotoi was dominant in most of the stations, therefore, it made on exclusive community of great populations. In some stations, B. sowerbyi is dominant, and some stations are characterized by a dominance of B. sowerbyi and L. willeyi. 5. From the results of observation, it is found that the communities of the aquatic oligochaetes in rice seedling beds consisted chiefly of two communities, one characterized by L. gotoi and the other by B. sowerbyi.
In the present paper, the insect association in the paddy field which had disturbed with BHC powder (3%) dusting, was analyzed synecologically using the table of the occurrence probability. 1. Judging from the seasonal appearance of insects in the 3 experimental sections, BHC dusted twice in every other day and once at comparatively earlier stage of the growth of rice plant and control, the change of seasonal prevalence of insects is different with each other, but it is very similar to each other in two BHC dusted fields, and successive change of it in once dusted field show intermediate from between 2 sections, BHC twice dusting and control. But finally, the same characteristic Nephotettix and Delphacodes association appears in every section at the later stage of rice plant. 2. Just after BHC dusting, insects are more numer ous in control field than 2 treated fields. And the effect of BHC is stay longer in twice dusted field than in once dusted field. But the population of every insect is the most numerous in the twice dusted field than any other in the later stage of rice plant. From these results, a very important fact is suggested in the course of the reconstitution of insect association after disturbance by BHC dusting.
1. The geographical distribution of Allomyces in northeastern Japan has been investigated since 1947,and the results are briefly abridged herein. 2. 12 localities of Allomyces arbuscula BUTLER, All. neo-moniliformis INDOH, and a strain of All. javanicus KNIEP var. japonensis INDOH, besides an undetermined species of the same genus were found in parts of Iwate, Yamagata and Akita Prefectures. Among the named species, All. arbuscula was the most widely distributed one, being found at nine-localities. 3. This genus which has never been found in regions north of the vicinity of Akita City, possesses species which distributed rather continuously in the paddy fields cultivated in the interior land regions. 4. The geographical distribution of Allomyces, especially its northern limit, seems to be governed by the annual average temperature, which in the vicinity of Akita City is 10.5℃. 5. In Europe, North America and Japan, the northernmost limit in the geographic distribution of the genus corresponds to latitude 40°North. This position in both North America and Japan agrees with the northern limit of moderate continental forest climate ; mild winters(Cfa)of the classification presented by KOPPEN.
The eight species of the benthic fish, consisting the important members of the trawler's catch in the northern part of the Sendai Bay, can be classified according to their feeding habits into three types, namely annelids eaters, crustaceans eaters and fish eaters. There can not be found any particular relations by weights in the numerical distributions of the fish species caught per unit haul. But when they are grouped by the feeding habits, the distributions in the abundance of different species within the same group, and also in the total weights among the different groups can precisely be represented by MOTOMURA'S formula (1932).