日本生態学会誌
Online ISSN : 2424-127X
Print ISSN : 0021-5007
ISSN-L : 0021-5007
19 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 杉本 毅
    原稿種別: 本文
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 1-8
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    溝川におけるセスジユスリカの卵塊および幼虫の密度推定法を検討した.1.各令期において幼虫の空間分布は共通のkをもつ負の二項分布によく適合するが, 卵塊の分布は負の二項分布に適合しない場合もあるようである.以下の各項では, ここで求めたkの値を利用して密度推定上のいくつかの問題を検討した.2.雌成虫はこけにおおわれた部分を避けながら溝川の側壁に卵塊■を産みつける傾向がある.よって卵塊の密度をより効率よく推定するためには, こけにおおわれた部分を標本抽出の場から除くべきである.3.ふ化幼虫は水流の乱れによって川底にランダムに近い分布を強いられているが, 成長するにつれて偏りを生じるようである.よって幼虫の密度を推定するに当って川底を中央部と二つの周辺部の三層に層別するのが望ましい.4.4令幼虫の密度範囲を推定するために"切れた"ちく次抽出法の適用を試みた.5.個体群密度と標本単位の最適な大きさとの関係を考察した.
  • 近藤 正樹
    原稿種別: 本文
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 8-12
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    ハタラキアリの体重は個体の大きさ(ここでは頭幅で表現する)ばかりではなく, その時における肥満度によっても異り, 肥満度の平均値は, 夏の外働きのアリにおける0.87×10^<-5>から越冬中のアリにおける2.04×10^<-5>まで変動する.ここではマユから出たばかりのハタラキアリはどの程度の体重あるいは肥満度から出発しているかを確めるために1963年7月22日にアリの巣からマユを採集し、25℃, 相対湿度90%で飼育をし, かえったアリを24時間ごとに測定した結果を報告する.頭幅と生重量との相関係数は0.89,頭幅と乾重量との相関係数は0.79といずれも相関関係が高いことを示している.肥満度の平均値は生重量では1.42×10^<-5>, 乾重量では0.32×10^-5であり, 夏にみられるやせたタイプのハタラキアリの値にほぼ類似するし, 夏の外働きのアリと越冬中のアリの中間に位する.一方, 比較のために12月の巣の中から得られた暗灰色(充分黒化していない)のアリだけを抽出して統計をとってみたところ, こちらは越冬中のハタラキアリ全般と同じ肥満度を示すことがわかった.それ故, マユから出る時の肥満度が越冬中のアリも夏にマユから出たアリとほぼ等しいならば, それ以後に肥満したことになる.尚, 夏にマユから出たハタラキアリの測定値を扱うにあたり, まえもってマユから出た日付の差・採集したコロニーによる差・マユから出た時の体色の差によって体重や肥満度に差を生ずるか否かを検討した.その結果きわだった差がないことを確認した.
  • 最首 光三
    原稿種別: 本文
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 13-20
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    The diurnal rhythm of the vertical migration of fish has been noticed as a factor affecting the efficiency of fish catching. The Yellow croaker, the most important demersal fish in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea, is a representative species that migrates vertically with certain rhythm. The diurnal vertical migration of this species was therefore investigated by analyzing the catch in conjunction with the time of day reported from trawlers operating in these waters. The seasonal change of the diurnal rhythm and the influence of the population size on this behavior were also examined (Fig. 1). The vertical migration of this species, a zooplankton feeder, seemed to be affected by the feeding behavior. The fish descends to the sea bottom in the daytime and ascends toward the surface at night in company with the upward movement of the diurnal vertical migration of such zooplankton as euphausiids, copepods and other crustaceans. The hourly change of the mean catch per hour tow (Table 1,Fig. 2) indicated that the values were generally large during the daytime with a peak around noon. This was particularly clear durnig the feeding period, October and November, while it was not distinct during the wintering period, January and February, The pattern of the feeding period, was found more clearly in the monthly change of the day-night ratio of the mean catch per hour tow (Fig. 5). The day-night ratio of the mean catch per hour tow for each size category (Table 3) or for growth (Fig. 4) revealed that the diurnal movement became more pronounced with the development of the fish, although no remarkable difference in size was observed during either the wintering or the feeding periods. The strength of the diurnal periodicity differed with the locality of the fishing grounds, i. e. the diurnal rhythm of the yellow croaker inhabiting the Yellow Sea was much stronger than that of the southern stock living in the East China Sea (Table 4,Fig. 5). The relation between the yearly change of the population size index and that of the day-night ratio (Fig. 6) afforded a negative correlation, which presumably suggests that the diurnal rhythm is not distinct when the population size is small and vice versa.
  • 中村 央
    原稿種別: 本文
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 20-26
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Observations on the mating behaviour of two species of the bean weevils, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. rhodesianus (?) were done under the conditions of 30℃, 75% R.H. and daily photophases of 16 hrs. When a female and a male of C. chinensis were introduced into the experimental arena, the male first moved around rather sluggishly, but suddenly he begun to move quickly with rapid movement of his antennae. Such change of behaviour, called 'activation' here, could not be seen when a male alone was introduced into the arena. Once the male found the female, he continued to follow her very closely, and struck her with his antennae. During copulation, the female remained stationary and exhibited no excitement. The male of C. rhodesianus walked around more actively than C. chinensis, and no change of his behaviour was observed in the course of finding the female. Before copulation, the male stood near the female and rapidly struck her with his antennae. During this duration, the female remained quiet. Sometimes mutual sparring with the antennae between both sexes was observed in the first step of mating behaviour. The male did not show the behaviour of running after the female. Homosexual behaviour, e.g. pursuing a male by another male, did occur frequently in C. chinensis but not in C. rhodesianus. In both species, a male found a female more easily when the female had been introduced in the dish 10 minutes prior to his entrance, than when she had been introduced at the same time. They could mate in darkness as well. When the male's antennae were amputated, he could not find a female. The female mated previously lost her attractiveness to the male. Reaction of the male to the female is specific for each species. In C. chinensis, the time required from the introduction of the male to his 'activation' as well as to his success of mating with the female was shortened as the size of the arena was reduced. While, in C. rhodesianus, the shortening of the time to mate was not so great as in the former. Even in a small tube, the males whose antennae were amputated could not mate in C. chinensis but some of them could mate in C. rhodesianus. These and other observations suggest that some stimulus (or stimuli) perceived by the male through his antennae, which may probably be olfactory in nature, is important in C. chinensis for the male's attraction to the female. In C. rhodesianus, the discovery of and copulation with the female by the male seems to depend to a greater extent upon the encounter by chance between the male and the female. Pre-mating period was very short in both species. The effect of delayed mating on the number of eggs laid per female was less marked in C. chinensis than in C. rhodesianus. When a female mated only once, the percentage of unhatched eggs was higher in C. rhodesianus than in C. chinensis.
  • 本田 重義
    原稿種別: 本文
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 27-35
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    The modes of netting of web spiders each of which comprises three components (occupation of space, netting process and web-form) are divided into the following five types : (1) vertical orb-web type, (2) horizontal orb-web type, (3) cubic web type, (4) sheet web type, and (5) fixing web type. To occupy the scaffolding stand and space for netting, some competitive or cooperative relationships are found between the individuals having the same of different mode of netting, and through these coactions each web spider community in each habitat is organized. Eleven different community types, each corresponding to the difference of habitat (conditions and localities), are found. The correspondent habitats and community types are as follows : [table] Among these Ara, Ara', L, N, Arg, Tr, Th, U' types are considered to form a set of community types in a district and are named as "the community lump A", while N', L, Arg', Tr, Th, U types form another set, and is called "the community lump B." The communities belonging to lump A are distributed over Fastern Siberia, Sikhote Alin, Northern and Eastevn Hokkaido, Honshu, Sikoku, Kyushu, Yakulsle, Tanegashimalsle, etc, and the distribution areas of those belonging to lump B are Takaralsle, Kikailsle, Amamilsle, Tokunoshimalsle, Okierabulsle, Ooronlsle, Okinawalsle, Ishigakilsle, Iriomote Isle, stc.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 35-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 36-42
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. App2-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. Toc1-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. App3-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. iii-iv
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 目次
    1969 年 19 巻 1 号 p. Toc2-
    発行日: 1969/02/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
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