日本生態学会誌
Online ISSN : 2424-127X
Print ISSN : 0021-5007
ISSN-L : 0021-5007
13 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小田 力
    原稿種別: 本文
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 41-46
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    The distribution of the female adults of the mulberry scale on each twig of the cherry tree, the plum tree and the mulberry tree was recorded, and the mortality and oviposition rates were surveyed to elucidate the phase of dispersion and its ecological significance ; on the other hand in the laboratory condition of 25℃, the number of eggs laid on the tuber of the potato by a female adult and the phase of dispersion of the nymphs hatched from these eggs were surveyed. The results are : 1) The individual number of the female adults settled on each twig suits the following equation, which was first proposed by KETTLE(1951), log y = log a +bx, where y represents the individual number at the distance x from the crotch of the twig. 2) The number of eggs laid by a female adult at a constant temperature of 25℃ was 99.7 on an average, while in the field 11 on an average of the nymphs from a female adult settled on the twig of the mulberry tree. Accordingly the mortality in the course of the dispersion was estimated to approach 89 per cent in the field. 3) The mortality of the female adult was about 30 per cent on an average (including the sterile female) from the settlement on the twig to the oviposition time, and it was higher towards the center of the dispersion. 4) Although no relations were recognized between the number of the eggs embraced by a female adult and its settling position on the twig, the rate of the sterile female adults were higher near the crotch of the twig and accordingly the oviposition rate on the whole was lower there. 5) The sex ratio, ♀/(♀+♂), of the nymphs which were laid by hibernated female adults was higher the top of the twig.
  • 奥野 良之助
    原稿種別: 本文
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 46-53
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Intra-and interspecific relations of 43 species of saltwater fishes were studied by the chasing behavior in seven exhibition tanks and one experiment tank of the Suma Aquarium. The observations were carried out in Nov. 1961. By comparing the frequency of intraspecific chasing with that of interspecific chasing for each species, 15 species, Kuhlia taeniura, Diploprion bifasciatus, Girella punctata, G. melanichthys, Lethrinus haematopterus, L. choerorhynchus, Gymnocranius griseus, Hapalogenys nitens, Therapon jarbua, T. oxyrhynchus, Abudefduf sordidus, Microcanthus strigatus, Prionurus microlepidotus, Siganus fuscescens and Stephanolepis cirrhifer, are recognized as the intraspecific chasing type. Other eight species, Epinephelus fasciatus, Lethrinus nematacanthus, Amphiprion xanthurus, A. frenatus, A. chrysogaster, Tetradrachmum trimaculatum, Tridentiger trigonocephalus and Abudefduf vaigiensis, are regarded as the nonspecific chasing type. These chasing types were compared with social behaviors in the open sea. It was found that intraspecific chasing type correlates with the schooling behavior in the natural habitat and the nonspecific chasing type correlates with the assemblage and solitary behaviors.
  • Kimio YOSHIKAWA
    原稿種別: Article
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 53-57
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper deals with the division of labor among individuals constituting the Polistes colony. Since the Japanese apecies of Polistes are monogynic, the labor is divided among workers in the superindividual stage, the founding female being then nothing but an egglaying machine. There is a tendency that older workers are in charge of the intracolonial tasks. Younger workers spend most of their time at rest, taking occasionally cell patrol, while middle-aged ones are mainly engaged in foraging. There is, however, no definite division of labor observable among them which is determined by their age as is the case with honeybees. Nevertheless, some extent of division of labor is certainly acknowledged in the Polistes colony and is considered as a factor by which the organization of the colony is maintained. In addition, distinction between a superorganism and a superindividual was discussed. It is more reasonable to regard the association of a founding female with her workers (excluding fertilizable females for the next generation) as a superindividual rather than to consider the whole colony as a superorganization.
  • 鈴木 静夫, 二村 坦孝
    原稿種別: 本文
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 57-59
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Ecological studies of mycelial fungi were carried out in the Goshikinuma Lake Group of Volcano Bandai, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The lake waters contain large amounts of mineral elements and show strong acidity. The mycelial fungi were counted to be 1500〜3000/l in water and 150〜2000/g in bottom muds. The differences in the amounts of the fungi were observed between acidotrophic and harmonic lakes. The genus Penicillium is dominating both in waters and muds. The vertical distribution of the fungi in water has correlation with that of dissolved oxygen. The fungi are distributed mostly in epilimnion.
  • 中村 央
    原稿種別: 本文
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 59-66
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using the azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis, and its larval parasite, Neocatolaccus mamezophagus, it was examined whether the balance of interacting system of the host and its parasite exists when the density independent mortality such as artificial removal of constant percentage of the population has influence upon the host-parasite interacting system. Under the condition controlled at 30℃ and 75 per cent R.H., various percentages of both host and parasite populations (exp. HP), or host population (exp. H), or parasite population (exp. P) were removed from the original population of the host-parasite system in every generation respectively, and how the steady state is altered by these treatments was examined. The methods of removal are as follows : In the experiment HP, a fixed percentage of beans which contained such percentage of host and parasite as 25,50,90 of the level of the steady density were heated just before the host emergence and removed. In the experiment H, during about one week, the host was removed every day, every two days, every three days from the time of adult emergence. In the experiment P, when the host is a full-grown larva and the parasite can easily lay its eggs in the host from outside the bean, the parasite was removed every day, every two days, every three days the from the 14th day after host oviposition. In experiment H and P, percentages of such removing as mentioned above were calculated as 70,80,90 per cent of the control population. In any case of the removing, the host-parasite system maintains a steady level of population density (Figs. 1,2,3). But the steady state of each removed population changes its level from that of the unremoved population as shown in Table 1. When the host was removed, the parasite density did not so conspicuously fluctuate as the host density (Fig. 2), and when the parasite was removed the trend of fluctuation seemed to be the reverse (Fig. 3). Unless the host density attains a saturation level, the steady density of it depends upon only the intensity of competition in the parasite population. After the host population reached such a state, the steady state of the host becomes higher in a single population of host than in the host-parasite system (Fig. 6). This difference in the steady density is due to the action of the parasite, which is highly influenced by the host density or parasite density even under a constant physical condition. In the interacting system, though the parasite efficiency of host finding is dependent on the density of the host, the probability that the deposited egg of the parasite developes into an adult parasite in the next generation is dependent on whether it is able to get away with hyper-parasitism. The probability that the egg of the weevil develops into an adult weevil which will be the individual of final density of the host population in the next generation depends on whether host can survive from attack of the parasite. Of course, the probability that the egg of the weevil is deposited by the individual of final density of the host developes into the individual of initial density of the host in the next generation is only dependent upon the density effect of the host population. This is because the host population is subjected to attack by the parasite for only a fraction of its developmental period just before host emergence. In any case of the removing, the host-parasite system maintains a steady level of population density. But the steady state of each removed population changes its level from that of the unremoved population as shown in Table 1.
  • 原稿種別: 文献目録等
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. Misc1-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 吉良 竜夫
    原稿種別: 本文
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 67-73
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Tokio SUZUKI
    原稿種別: 本文
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 73-79
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    日本における花粉学的研究は, 1930年ころ, 植物社会学の発達とほぼ時を同じくして, 京都と仙台の2つの中心から発達していった.そして時代的に, 氷河期以後の新しい堆積物の研究と, 第3紀の亜炭の研究とにわかれる.したがつて第3紀以後の植物社会変遷の歴史をまとめるには, 花粉分析の成果を肉眼的植物遺体の研究も, あわせて考察する必要がある.主として粘土の中から取り出された針葉樹類の遺体, ヒシの実, ブドウの種子等の肉眼的植物遺体の研究から, 三木茂は, 第3紀をスギ科時代とマツ科時代とに区別し, スギ科時代の終末は極の移動による海退をともなわない低温によるものであると推定し, 洪積世を通ずる針葉樹の変遷と共に間氷期にあらわれる温暖気候のフロラを証明した. 仙台の神保忠男, 相馬寛吉らは第3紀亜炭の花粉分析の結果から, 三木茂の指摘した気候変化をみとめた.京都の山崎次男は同じく亜炭の花粉分析から, スギ科時代の終末を最上層群の中で断定することを試みた.なお第4紀については, カラフト, 北海道の湿原泥炭の花粉分析と, 現在の森林におけるエゾマツ対トドマツの混合率とから, 洪積世のある時代に現代よりも寒い時代があつて, その時代には現在北海道にないグイマツが北海道に生育していることを明らかにした.仙台の流れをくむ高知の中村純は尾瀬ガ原をはじめ, 主として中部以西の湿原の花粉分析から, 中部および西南部日本において, 世界各地に対応する気候変化が, RIという氷河期につぐ寒い時代の後, RIIという今よりも暖い時代がきて, その後再びRIIIという低温の時代がきたと主張している.堀正一は中部日本において, 8m以上の厚い泥炭層の詳細な花粉分析から, 気候変化の時間を大まかに推定している.以上の花粉, ならびに肉眼的遺体の研究を植物社会学的に考察すると, 日本列島がアジア大陸東岸との間に日本海をはさむ海中山脈であるという地理的位置に運命づけられて, 大陸性気団と海洋性気団との間に生ずる季節風によつて, 中軸山脈を境として島弧の内側と外側とに対立する気候型を生じ, さらにこれによつて植生配置が主動的に支配されている事実が, 第3紀以後の気候変動によつて, どのように変化をしてきたかを問題としなければならない.この極盛相森林の植物社会学的対立関係は, 垂直森林帯の上位のものにおけるほど, 刻である.低地帯と丘陵帯の極盛相であるスダシイ群団にあつては, 対立関係はほとんどみとめられない.低山地帯の針葉樹林は, 日本海岸では固有の植生帯を形成しないが, 太平洋岸では, それがみとめられる.なお, この植生帯は北方針葉樹林とインド・マライ系の常緑植物との複合体である.山地帯のブナ群団では, 立関係は一層明瞭となり, 対立する2つの群集がみとめられるばかりでなく, この群団を指標として日本を植物社会学的に, 裏日本と表日本にわけることができる.その上の亜高山帯では, 対立関係は極度に強化され, 北半球亜寒帯の針葉樹林の一部であるアオモリトドマツ群団の林帯は東北日本の日本海岸に全く欠け, これに対応する日本海岸の群集は針葉樹の林冠を欠くササの低木林である.以上のごとく, 気候型にもとづく対立関係は西南日本においては, 内帯と外帯とをわかつ中央構造線による地史的原因によつて強化され, 温度による植生の帯状配置にいちじるしいひずみを与えている.また第3紀以来の気候変動にともなう植生の北上, 南下において, ほぼ南北に走る日本列島の中軸山脈は, 西に走るヨーロッパのアルブス山脈や地中海のような障壁とならず, むしろ通路となつた. しかしながら, 気候変化にともなう海面の上昇下降は当然日本海の大きさを, 大いに変化させた筈であるから, 海進の時代と海退の時代が交互するにつれて, 日本海岸の気候は海退時には大陸的乾燥に傾き, 海進時には, もし温度気候に温帯的な部分があれば, 多雪気候を, また亜熱帯的な気候であれば, 多雨気候を生ぜしめた筈である.現在ササとこれに伴う地這性の常緑低木は雪の下に保護されて北海道まで北上しているが, これらのフロラはいわゆる遺存植物ではなく, 新しい環境に対して順応進化して生じた-群の生物であろう.日本列島の生物界そのものが, 北からの針葉樹フロラの影響と南からのインド・マライ系の常緑広葉フロラとの複合体である.日本の花粉学はすでに北からの針葉樹の南進をたしかめ得た.もし, 南からの広葉樹の北進に眼をそそぐ時, 特に多雪気候に適応したササならびに地這性常緑低木に注目したならば, その植物社会学的意義は増大されるであろう.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. 80-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. Cover3-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1963 年 13 巻 2 号 p. Cover4-
    発行日: 1963/04/01
    公開日: 2017/04/08
    ジャーナル フリー
feedback
Top