日本生態学会誌
Online ISSN : 2424-127X
Print ISSN : 0021-5007
ISSN-L : 0021-5007
6 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の20件中1~20を表示しています
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. Cover1-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. Cover2-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. App1-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 川村 俊蔵, 河合 雅雄
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 45-50
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the Minoo Valley about 15 km. north of Osaka City, there live two natural groups of Japanese Macaque, Macaca fuscata fuscata. The larger group is called the Minoo-A group and the smaller the Minoo-B group. This paper deals with the results of our study on the social organization of the latter group, which has some characteristic features differing from those of other groups hitherto surveyed. The Primates Research Group, to which we belong, has already clarified the social organization of four different wild groups of Japanese Macaque in different localities of Japan including the Minoo-A group, and the present study represents the 5th example. As Table 1 shows, the Minoo-B group consists of 17 members belonging to 7 different social status. 2 individuals, Nasio and Zuku, comprises the axis of the group and share the leadership, younger Nasio being the chief-male and old Zuku the headfemale. Adult female, young female, infant and baby are the other 4 status. Besides these there is another interesting status. 2 females, especially young Anzu behaved as if they were young males and played the status role of common males in other normal groups. These 2 females seem to complement the social deficit due to the absence of common males in this unusual macaque group. Besides the two groups, a male party is found which consists of 5 younger males and follows after the B-group keeping some distance apart from the latter. According to KAWAMURA'S preceding observations, certain historical processes as follows are responsible for this situation. Formerly Nasio was the leader of an independent male party, when the chief-male of the B-group was occupied by a full adult male named Ata. In the later part of 1955,however, Ata disappeared and his status was replaced by Nasio who came from the male party. Members of the male party other than Nasio thereafter abandoned their own nomadism and became the follower associated to the B-group. Sexual relationship between the Minoo-B group and the associated male party exhibited several features as yet unknown in any other group so far studied. The group of females often approached the male party in a very open manner or tried to tempt the males to her group. Even in such cases, the chief-male Nasio showed no rage to the females, unlike most chiefs of other groups who found impudent females. A particular type of females' calling, which we registered as (K'), was found to be a stereotyped behavior on their approach to the males, rarely known in other groups. A violent series of homosexual behavior between Anzu and Momo was observed, Anzu playing the typical role of a male. Part of the series is recorded in Table 2. These facts should be of importance in the socio-ecological comparison among groups of Japanese Macaque.
  • 森下 和男, 山中 二男
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 50-53
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Spiraea tosaensis YATABE was established based upon the material from the river-course of Shimantogawa in Kochi Prefecture and has been often treated as a variety of Spiraea nipponica MAXIM. So far as our knowledge is concerned, this species is an endemic plant in Shikoku and occurs in the river-courses of Nakagawa in Tokushima Prefecture and Shimantogawa just mentioned. Besides it is rarely found on limestone of Mt. Dairyuji in Tokushima Prefecture (Fig.1). In the river-course of Shimantogawa, the community of this species can usually be found on rocks of the river bank and alluvial soils frequently flooded during the rainy season. The floristic composition and the structure of the community are presented in Table 1. From the phytogeographical point of view it is an interesting fact that many relic and endemic species such as Spiraea tosaensis YATABE, Chrysanthemum yoshinaganthum MAKINO, and others occur on rocky banks in river-courses. The problems on the flora and vegetation in the river-course are briefly discussed in this paper.
  • 山崎 寿, 西村 国男, 山田 たけを
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 53-54
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since the copulation ratio of A. yamamai is not only low but also the copulation itself is usually difficult to observe, a discovery of some characteristics of layings between the copulated moths and the uncopulated, viz. virgin moths should be of great benefit to this industry. On the July 29th, 1953,the writers experimented upon ten pairs of A. yamamai moths, each of which was put in a separate moth cage hung in the open near the house, when the room temperature was 23.0°〜26.5C and the humidity was 68〜86%. After the observations through two successive nights, it was found that only three pairs were successful in copulation, that is, they began to copulate from 1 : 37 a.m., 1 : 43 a.m. and 2 : 20 a.m. of the 31st of the month. Then every male moth was removed from the cage to watch the behavior of the lonesome female moth. The layings of the copulated moths were made almost exclusively approximately as many as four-fifths of the total eggs-in the successive night of copulation, viz, on the third night of this experiment, with rapid decrease thenceforth. The eggs remaining in the mother body were few. As to the virgin moths, however, they laid only a few eggs in the third night, and continued for several days thenceforth. Therefore the fertility of the egg is predictable from the date of its laying, in other words, the eggs laid in the third night of pairing are without exception fertile, whereas those laid thenceforth are almost unfertile. The pairing of the once copulated male moth with a virgin female moth is of great interest, but the study must be reserved, for another opportunity.
  • 松岡 匡一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 54-56
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present paper are given the results of studies on the relation between germination and depth of seeding of nine varieties of Vicia seeds in the soil used after F. elatior L. and from the soil used after sweet potato-wheat. Both soils were cultivated at the same time and used for five years. The experiments were carried out from October to November in 1954,with the following results. (1) Germination of Vicia varieties was good in the soil of rather dried condition, and the maximum of the depth of its seeding was about 7 cm. (2) Vicia seed germinates well in the soil used after F. elatior L. and also, it was good when the amplitude of soil moisture as well as soil temperature was high. (3) The soil under the F. elatior L. cultivation has promoted soil aggregation, and the amplitude of soil moisture and soil temperature in the upper parts of this soil is very remarkable ; this gives good conditions for the germination of Vicia varieties. (4) The germination of early maturing varieties, such as V. narbonensis, V. benghalensis and V. dasycarpa was especially good in the soil used after F. elatior L. cultivation, compared with the soil used after wheat-sweet potato cultivation. This was regarded as having some relation with the high soil temperature and porosity. (5) The fact that only germination of V. satica (Japanese wild variety) was worse when compared with the plot used after wheat-sweet potato cultivation, requires more study.
  • 加藤 憲一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 57-61
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    The green frog, Rhacophorus schlegelii var. arborea OKADA et KAWANO has a peculier breeding habit, i.e., a female deposits the eggs on leaves of trees and grasses near ponds with special assistance of three of four males. The coupling occurs usually at night or at day-break and the coupled frogs begin to walk to and fro, but are seldom found in the day time. Just after or before the onset of the oviposition, the males found near the path of this pair come together one by one to make a ovipositing group. In many cases they occupy the position on the dorsal or lateral side of the other early joined male as is shown on the left of Fig.3,but sometimes a certain male in the ovipositing group does not take the position on the upside of the early joined male but holds to the small twigs of trees near the ovipositing place (right of Fig.3). Regarding the sizes of the males in ovipositing group, two cases are distinguished. The one in which the sizes are larger in the more early participated male than in the latter one (Table 1,type II), in a ward these accord with their participation order. The sizes in the other case are not in accord (types III and IV). Near the end of oviposition, the males begin to leave the egg mass ; in type II this retreat takes palce inversely to the participation order, but in types III or IV it is independent of this order. However, in both cases the largest male among the ovipositing group remains until the end of oviposition. Hence, the writer is inclined to consider that the body size of the male and its position in the group are involved in its duration joining in the egg oviposition. The eggs are laid with gelatinous substance, which is beat up by the rotatory movement of the hind legs of the males and the female, into a foamy mass. Between the rotatory movement and the next movement the frogs take breath, this breathing time shows the prolonging tendency with the progress of the oviposition. The movement of the male takes place together with that of the female, regardless of their participation order and body size (Fig. 5). Further it was confirmed by microscopical examination that all males in the ovipositing group participated in fertilizing the eggs. It was observed that some males joined again in the ovipositing group. Consequently, at least, that the sex-ratio observed at the time of oviposition became 1 : 3-4 seems not to mean the actual ratio in number of each sex. However it seems that the sex-ratio of this variety is about 1 : 1 when the other facts are considered.
  • 沼田 真
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 62-66
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    1) Permanent quadrats of 1 sq.m. were laid in the abandoned field in the grounds of the Chiba University. On laying quadrats, the surface soil was cultivated, mixed, and weeded at the begining of the year. The kinds of permanent quadrats are as follows : [table] 2) A part of the floristic composition of each plot is shown in Tables 1-6. The second-and third-year fields (plot 53) were dominated by Erigeron annuus. The chief dominant in the first year Ambrosia elatior remains still, but it is present in smaller sizes in the second-year fields. The first-year fields (plot 54a) were dominated by Ambrosia elatior as stated in Report I, where in autumn the second-year dominant Erigeron annuus germinated in abundance. However about one fourth died in winter. In the plots 54b and c, Erigeron dominates faster than usual by cutting Ambrosia. Early succession in abandoned fields includes the following stages in our experiments : summer annual weed (Ambrosia), winter annual or biennial weed (Erigeron), perennial grass (Imperata and Miscanthus). Imperata invades the early stages very slowly, progressing inward chiefly around the margins of the plots. 3) The yearly variation of biological type spectra (Table 7) shows the prograssion of succession in decreasing Th, and e, and increasing H, G, I, and p. This means the increment of the spatial utilization of species and the development of the community structure. The seasonal variation of biological type spectra (Table 8) shows by decreasing e that some of the erect types become prominent and the number of those species decreased, while the number of those individuals increases. The increment of t means the progression of the spatial utilization of species. In the comparison of the community types of 54a, b, and c (Table 9,Figs. 1-2), increasing H, G, t, 1,and r and decreasing Th and D_<1-2> seem to show the development of communities. However, decreasing R_<1-3> and pr, and increasing e indicate the opposite tendency. In such a way, the cut dominant or dominant group bring a kind of pseudo-developmental process. 4) When the organizing process of weed communities is shown by the number of individuals-rank of species relations, there are three important types, linear, L-type, and S-type as shown in Fig. 3. In such a figure, the angles of the subordinate groups against the y-axis (Table 10) correspond to the power relations of components. Small angles (sheer linear relations) show a severe interspecific competition. The dominant ratio (Table 11) varies seasonally accompanying with the progression of the spatial utilization of species. The linear, L-type, and S-type relations are based on MOTOMURA's law of geometrical progression, WILLIAMS' law of logarithmic series, and PRESTON's lognormal type of population respectively. Linear relations are said to satisfy in case of a small size of the sample. Besides this, however, the stratification by the growth stage or the community layer is very important biologically. Even the small size of the sample does not show a linaer relation when not stratified (Table 12,Fig. 4). 5) Ecological parameters concerning the speciesarea or species-individual relation vary seasonally and yearly. For instance, the index of diversity does not vary as the number of individuals (Table 13). The species-log. individual relation is curved (Fig. 5). The reasons why such curves are present even in case of small α will be based on the contagious distribution and themendous increment of the number of indiduals of partial rosette types in autumn. 6) The mode of distribution is examined based on the dispersion diagram (unit area : 5×5 sq. cm.). Especially POISSON types and THOMAS' distribution are examined (Table 14). It is said that abundant species such as Ambrosia, Erigeron, and Setaria are distributed after THOMAS' series fairly well, and fewer species such as Digitaria and Imperata afte

    (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

  • 澄川 精吾
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 66-69
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Die Konzentrationen der Pressafte aus frischen Korpern von verschiedenen Gastropoden, die an der Felsenplatte und dem Felsenriffe in den zehn Platzen, die Meereskuste entlang in der Bucht von Hakata und an der offenen Meereskuste wohnen, wurden gemessen und miteinander in Vergleich gesetzt. Andererseits wurden der Wassergehalt und das spezifische Pulvergewicht des Gesamtgewebes von zehn verschiedenen Gastropoden, deren Standorter voneinander verschieden sind, miteinander vergleichend bestimmt. Die "Pulvermethode" wurde hierbei fur die Bestimmung des Wassergehaltes und des spezifischen Pulvergewichtes angewandt. 2. Die Gastropoden, die an der Meereskuste ausserhalb der Bucht und am Zugang dazu wohnen, haben grossere Werte fur die Konzentration des Pressaftes, fur den Wassergehalt und das spezifische Pulvergewicht, als diejenigen, die an der Kuste innerbalb der Bucht wohnen. 3. Monodonta labio, gefunden an allen untergesuchten Platzen, besitzen desto kleinere Werte des Wassergehaltes und des spezifischen Pulvergewichtes, je naher ihr Standort zu der Innenseite der Bucht gelegen ist. 4. Ein Parallelismus zwischen dem Wassergehalt und dem spezifischen Pulvergewicht des Pflanzenkorpers, welcher im Studiengebiet des Wasserhaltungsverhaltnisses der Pflanze gefunden ist, ist auch in dem der Meeresmuschel bemerkbar. Das spezifische Pulvergewicht deutet den Grad der Resistenz gegen die Trockenheit, beziehungsweise gegen die Salzlosung an, deshalb wurde die Messung des spezifischen Pulvergewichtes ein erfolgreiches Forschungsmittel des okologischen Lebens von an der Meereskuste wohnenden Tieren sein.
  • 渡辺 仁治
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 69-72
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    The water colors and the plankton in 16 ponds in the neighbourhood of Nijyo village, Nara Prefecture, have been studied in November of 1955. The water color measurement was made by YAMAZAKI and WATANABE's method (1955), to which the principle of "additive color mixture" by using MAXWELL's disc was applied. The dominant wavelength (λD), brightness (Y) and excitation purity (Pe) on the C.I.E. color language of each water color obtained by this method in 16 ponds are shown in Table 2. As the brightness (Y) is considered to be the value representing the degree of white muddiness in the ponds investigated, the correlation between the brightness (Y) and the plankton flora was mainly studied. From Tables 2,3 and 4 which show the number of species constituting the plankton, these white muddy ponds seem belong to argillotrophic phase in the oligotrophic type as designated by YOSHIMURA (1933) in his system of lake types. From Figure 2 it is clear that the existence of colloidal mineral matters made the composition of phytoplankton flora extremely simple. In the density of dispersed phase, when it becomes considerably high, that is to say, the brightness (Y) of water color exceeds 10 per cent, the production of phytoplankton seems to be especially restricted.
  • 津田 松苗, 川合 禎次
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 73-75
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. 25 fluorescent lamps were set along the open water duct (Flgs. 1,2) of the Uji Water Power Plant. This duct, followed by the blind duct (water tunnel), conducts the water from the Nango Dam (Seta-gawa) to the Uji Power Plant. The duct (the open part as well as the blind part) is inhabited by a number of net-spinning caddis-fly larvae, the nets and cases of which resist the water flow, so that the efficiency of the power plant is reduced, generally by 10 per cent or more. 2. The caddis-flies caught at the lamps in the night of July 5〜6 1955 were studied. Samples were taken from No. 1 lamp (sample A) and from No. 25 lamp (sample B) ; the former is situated at the top of the duct, i.e. nearest to the Seta-gawa, the latter is at about 650 meters distance from No.1 lamp and at the entrance of the tunnel. Only 1/30 of each sample was calculated, as is shown in Table 1. 3. Hydropsyche nakaharai, which in its larval stage is the principal inhabitant of the duct, occupies 51.4 per cent of sample A and 93.6 per cent of sample B of the total caddis-flies. 4. Number of ♀ caught at light is far greater than that of ♂, especially in the species, Hydropsyche nakaharai and Macronema radiatum. This result is based upon the different strengths of phototropism in both sexes, because the true sex-ratio examined on the pupae in the water was almost 1 : 1. 5. Of 220 Hydropsyche nakaharai-females caught at light 189 (85.9%) had egg-masses; of 210 Macronema radiatum-females 161 (76.7%) had egg-masses. 6. Sample A contained more such caddis-flies in percentage, that emerged from the Seta-gawa, than sample B.
  • 津田 松苗
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 76-79
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    The nature of the stream bottom is a very important factor with regard to animal communities and is to be discussed in terms of the particle size which a given current will move off the bottom. The stony bed of the riffles is stable and thus it may inhabit many benthic animals, while the sandy bed tends to shift, more or less, whenever the current increases somewhat above the normal, and the result is that conditions for animal life are more rigorous than on a stable bottom. Examples studied in a stream, Yudehara-gawa, Nosegawa-mura, Nara Prefecture are described as to the community of the stony bed (Table 1) and that of the sandy bed (Table 2). Various conditions relating to the bottom problem are discussed.
  • 氏家 由三
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 79-82
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    The succession of vegatation was investigated in the intertidal zone at Takamatsu harbor from 1947 to 1955. As an experimental spot the surface of one of the many boulders in the habor was selected. The change of vegetation presented the following two interesting points : At first, there was a closed community of Gloiopeltis furcata on the highest zone of the rock surface, but Ulva pertusa gradually began to grow among it. At last, the rock surface was almost covered with a closed community of Ulva pertusa, but Sargassum Thunbergii was invading them. It is said that this is the influence of alternation of the substratum in the Takamatsu district, which has been caused by the Nankai earthquake of 1946. Perennial algae can not easily emigrate, while the substratum is submerging. On the other hand, if the substratum is stable it can easily emigrate. The zonal arrangements which have been constant for these nine years, can be summarized as follows : [table]
  • 大串 龍一
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 82-83
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 斎藤 実
    原稿種別: 本文
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 83-88
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. The writer has made an ecological investigation of the moss which grows on limestone in the limestone districts of Nishitappu, Higashiyama-mura, Sorachi-gun, Hokkaido. 2. On the limestone in this district the writer was able to identify 34 different species of moss (and also 6 different species of Hep.). This moss can be subdivided into 5 types as follows : (1). Moss which grows only on limestone. (2). That which grows chiefly on limestone but also on any kind of rocks or soil. (3). That which will grow anywhere. (4). That which grows only on very moist, or wet soil. 3. There the succession of moss community on limestone can be roughly assumed to be as follows : 4. In districts like this one, where deep limestone weathering has produced, a comparatively deep layer [table] of soil, and where very little limestone is exposed the wood layer shows the climatic climax. The species of moss such as Eurhynchiun eustegum, Thumnium alopecurum and Cluopodium subpiliferum win out in a struggle for existence with other types of moss.
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 88-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 付録等
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. 89-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. Cover3-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 原稿種別: 表紙
    1956 年 6 巻 2 号 p. Cover4-
    発行日: 1956/10/31
    公開日: 2017/04/07
    ジャーナル フリー
feedback
Top