The data from 198 dogs with mammary tumor brought to a general veterinary hospital in 1996 were collected and statistically analyzed to evaluate the effects of ovariohysterectomy on prognosis in dogs with mammary tumor. The dogs were divided into four groups : a group of 165 dogs from which the ovaries and uterus were both excised including the mammary tumor, a control group of 19 dogs from which only the mammary tumor was excised, and two other minor groups. The frequency of re-operation at the same site and postoperative survival rate tended to be lower in the group of the dogs which underwent ovariohysterectomy (Group II; 21.2%) than in the control group (Group I; 26.3%). The occurrence rate of histological changes between the first and second surgical operations also tended to be lower in Group II than Group I. The survival rate was significantly higher in Group II than Group I. These findings strongly suggested that simultaneous excision of the ovaries and uterus with excision of mammary tumor lessens both the recurrence of mammary tumor and postoperative histological changes, which means that this procedure enables dogs to survive longer.
In 12 dogs with mast cell tumor (MCT), serum histamine concentrations were measured and evaluated as an indicator to predict prognoses and metastases after surgical excision of the MCT. The dogs with MCT showed higher serum histamine concentrations than eight healthy control dogs. Serum histamine concentrations were also correlated with tumor sizes and clinical stages, which suggested that the measurment of serum histamine concentrations could be useful for monitoring the progression of disease and treatment. Nine dogs with extremly high histamine values survived for shorter times, and the survival time was only 2 to 130 days (the median was 29 days), suggesting that there was a correlation between blood histamine concentrations and prognoses. Blood histamine concentrations after the stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187 were measured to see the degree of histamine release, because these values can reflect the number of mast cells in the peripheral blood. Out of eight dogs with metastases, six dogs had noticeable values of histamine concentrations, but four dogs spparently free of metastases had normal values. These findings indicated that histamine release after stimulation could be a potential indicator of metastasis. In addition, six dogs showing marked histamine release all died within 130 days no matter what treatment they received. In conclusion, measurement of histamine concentrations can provide useful information for treating canine MCT.
We report two dogs which were diagnosed as having idiopathic intestinal lymphangiectagia. The clinical findings of weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and severe panhypoproteinemia suggested the possibility of this disease. However, to make a definite diagnosis, we needed histological examination of the small intestine in each case. The diagnosis of intestinal lymphagiectasia was established with full-thickness excisional biopsy of the jejunum. Generally speaking, there is good possibility of therapeutic success when the disease is found early although it is unlikely for any treatment to lead to complete recovery. Case 1 was very serious, and the disease was diagnosed too late ; the dog died seven days after surgery. Case 2, whose disease was diagnosed at an earlier stage than in case 1, survived with medication, but died 501 days after surgery. We conclude that biopsy after probe laparotomy is important to make a definite diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia at an early stage of the disease, even when such a surgical procedure is invasive, especially for ill animals.
In four rabbits suffering form hematuria and dysuria due to uropsammus (urinary sand) or urolithiasis (urinary calculi), the urinary sand in one animal was manually removed, and the urinary calculi in the three other animals were surgically removed. In case one, a two-year-old female rabbit confirmed as having urinary sand, the sand was easily extruded by pushing against the lower abdomen under general anesthesia. The other three underwent urethrotomy and cystotomy under general anesthesia. Case two was a two-year-old female rabbit with two vesical calculi, 4 mm and 5 mm in diameter. Case three was a two-year-old male rabbit with several vesical calculi 5 to 8 mm in diameter, and a urethral calculus 15 mm in diameter. Case four was a three-year-old male rabbit with a urethral calculus 15 mm in diameter. The chemical analysis of the urinary sand and calculi showed that they were all composed of calcium carbonate, which we suspect might have been caused by too much intake of calcium due in a poorly balanced diet. All animals have been in good condition since the treatment, controlled by alimentary therapy. It is necessary to keep dietary calcium at an appropriate level when feeding rabbits.