The positivity of anti-feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody was analyzed in a total of 83,606 domestic cats examined in FCoV serological test between 1993 and 2009 in Japan, grouped by breed. The positive rate was extremely higher in purebreds (76.3%) than in mixed breeds (50.1%) (χ2=4,408.5). In both breeds, the positive rate increased rapidly until aged 4 months, and declined with aging thereafter. The positive rate of purebreds increased, while that of mixed breeds decreased, during the surveyed period. These findings suggest that FCoV infection occurs at a high frequency in immature purebreds, and the prevalence has recently gotten worse. Compared with the averaged positive rate of the purebreds (76.3%), the positive rates of Scottish Fold (87.5%) and Maine Coon (89.6%) were extremely high (p<0.0001, χ2=143.2 and 131.6, respectively), and those of Siamese (47.1%) and Persian (65.3%) were extremely low (p<0.0001, χ2=332.2 and 248.9, respectively). The previous epidemiological studies also have shown that FCoV and feline infectious peritonitis were lower prevalent in Siamese and Persian than in other breeds, and a similar tendency was shown in this study.
The prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh feces of 270 private household dogs (1-6 months: 150 dogs, over 1 year: 120 dogs) and 216 cats (1-6 months: 112 cats, over 1 year: 104 cats) was evaluated using the ELISA for Giardia antigen and the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique for other parasites. The fecal samples were collected from 37 animal hospitals in 20 Prefectures of several regions in Japan. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-6 months dogs (40.7 %, 61/150) was significantly higher than that of over 1 year dogs (5.8 %, 7/120) (P<0.001). Also, the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 1-6 months cats (22.3 %, 25/112) was significantly higher than that of over 1 year cats (3.8 %, 4/104) (P<0.001). Giardia was most frequently detected in both of 1-6 months dogs (33.3 %) and over 1 year dogs (2.5 %). In cats, Toxocara cati was most frequently detected in both of 1-6 months cats (15.2 %) and over 1 year cats (1.9 %). Giardia in dogs and T. cati in cats were detected in all of the regions. The results suggest that Giardia and T. cati are very common in private household dogs and cats, respectively, in Japan.
Echocardiography was performed on an 18-year-old, mixed-breed cat with chylothorax. Signs of increase in right heart pressure, and mosaic flow at the area close to the membranous part of interventricular septum were observed in the cat. From the findings of echocardiography and the clinical conditions, we suspected that the cat had developed pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and started treatment with beraprost sodium (BPS), and general therapy for heart failure. The clinical conditions showed rapid improvement; approximately 6 weeks after the first examination, chylothrax had disappeared on echocardiographs, and all signs of PH had also improved remarkably. Further evaluation suggested that there was no connection between the irregular blood flow and VSD, but indicated the probability of aortic regurgitation, instead. We were unable to confirm the root cause of the PH, but still consider the likelihood of some kind of pulmonary vascular disease. In conclusion, the fact that the cat's clinical conditions were improved by BPS suggested the effectiveness of BPS on PH-derived right heart failure, and the possibility that idiopathic chylorax might be caused by PH induced by pulmonary vascular disease.
Four dogs with urinary mass(es) were treated surgically, and their disease was diagnosed as eosinophilic cystitis histopathologically. In two dogs, the masses were successfully removed, and there was no recurrence after surgery. In the other two, relapse was seen. But in all cases, tissues from the masses did not seem malignant. The purpose of this report is to describe the detailed course of the disease, because there are few reports on eosinophilic cystitis in the field of veterinary medicine.
Antimicrobial susceptibility of new antimicrobials approved as anti-methicillin resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus (SA) drug in humans was examined against MR staphylococci (S) isolated from dogs and cats. Seven MR Staphylococcus intermedius group, one MR coagulase negative staphylococci, and one MRSA were isolated from October 2009 to December 2009. All MRS isolates were sensitive to new antimicrobials like arbekacin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Seventy eight percent, 56%, and 45% of MRS were sensitive to doxycycline, chloramphenicol, and fosfomycin, respectively. Only 11% of MRS were sensitive to gentamicin and ofloxacin, and all MRS were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalexin and cefdinir.