Using right intercostal ultrasonography, the ratio of maximum diameter of the portal vein to the aorta (PV/Ao) was measured and compared in a total of 43 dogs with congenital or acquired portosystemic shunts. Group A was composed of 26 dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts, Group B1 was composed of 11 dogs with acquired portosystemic collaterals due to chronic hepatitis, Group B2 was composed of 6 dogs with acquired portosystemic collaterals due to primary hypoplasia of the portal vein, and the Control Group was composed of 20 dogs free of vascular problems. The median values of PV/Ao were: Control > B1 > B2 > A. Considered statistically, the PV/Ao of Group B1 was significantly higher than that of Group A (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference between Group B1 and the Control Group. The PV/Ao of Group B2 was significantly lower than that of the Control Group (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between B2 and A. In 24 of the dogs in Group A, transverse images of portosystemic shunts were visualized below the caudal vena cava by this method. An enlarged azygous vein was detected adjacent to the aorta in all three dogs with a port azygous shunt. In conclusion, right intercostal ultrasonography is useful in measuring PV/Ao, and detecting an extrahepatic shunt. As an indicator showing the presence of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts, reduced values of PV/Ao might help in diagnosing the disease.
An 8-year-old mixed-breed dog was brought to us with the main complaint of lameness of the thoracic limb. Although the results of myelography and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were within normal ranges, treatment with several drugs for suspected cervical intervetebral disk protrusion was started. On day 25 after the initial medication, tonic-clonic seizure, general ataxia, strabismus, nystagmus, and reduced menace response occurred. In addition to these neurological symptoms, fever, increased white blood cells, and increased heart murmur were also seen. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a circle lesion in the white matter of the left frontal lobe, and a diffuse lesion of the right temporal lobe, but there was no enhancement after injection of contrast medium (gadolinium) in these lesions. In spite of continuous medical treatment, the dog’s general condition became worse, and the dog died on day 41. Severe pleocytosis was detected using cerebrospinal fluid collected immediately after death. Autopsy revealed swelling of the left frontal and right temporal lobes, subarachnoid hemorrhage in the parietal lobe, and intravertebral disk protrusion, which was found to press on the left nerve root C7. In addition, verruca formation on the mitral and tricuspid valves, and white puncture lesions in several internal organs were observed. Histologically, the dog was diagnosed as suffering from sepsis with multiple abscesses and anemic infarction in the brain.
A 7-year-old ovariohysterectomized cat had frequent vomiting, anorexia, and choleliths found throughout the gall bladder up to the common bile duct in several clinical examinations. A complex of incomplete obstruction of the common bile duct, juandice due to cholangiohepatitis, and pancreatitis were seen. On the third day of treatment, surgery was performed to decompress the bile duct. Since choleliths inside the distended common bile duct could not be cleared completely by cannulation from the bile duct and duodenum, cholecystotomy and choledochoduodenostomy were performed in succession. Jaundice, hepatic disorders, pancreatitis, and the general condition were improved during the postoperative course. At present, the cat is clinically well.
An approximately 9-year-old castrated male ferret was presented for physical examination. Chronic hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, and the patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The owner declined treatment for diabetes; therefore, the patient was monitored. Adrenal disease was also suspected, and leuprorelin acetate was administered. The ferret subsequently developed ketonuria, and his signs of diabetes mellitus worsened. The patient was hospitalized, and insulin therapy was initiated. His condition remained stable with insulin treatment alone for approximately 6 months, but the patient developed a urethral obstruction caused by bacterial cystitis and a prostatic abscess. Surgical repair was performed. His condition has remained good with insulin and leuprorelin acetate treatment.
Antimicrobial susceptibility to faropenem (FRPM), an orally-active β- lactam antibiotic, was examined using clinical isolates from dogs and cats admitted to Miyamoto Animal Hospital in Yamaguchi City during the period of one year. All strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and metallo -β- lactamase- producing Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to FRPM, and 33 % of Corynebacterium spp. strains and 80 % of Enterococcus faecium strains were also resistant to FRPM. On the other hand, all strains of methycillin-susceptible Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae including extended-spectrum β-lactamase- producing bacteria, other Pseudomonas spp., metallo-β-lactamase- nonproducing Acinetobacter spp. and Pasteurella multocida were susceptible to FRPM.
To evaluate the progress of Giardia infection in pet shop puppies, the present investigation was undertaken in 4 pet shops in 2008 and 2013. Fresh fecal samples were collected from puppies （aged 1-3 months） kept in pet shops, and Giardia antigen was detected using ELISA kit （SNAP Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., USA）. Overall detection rates of Giardia antigen in 2008 and 2013 were 24.8% （162/654） and 29.5% （177/600）, respectively, and there was no significant difference between them. In each pet shop comparison, also no significant difference was observed in the detection rates of Giardia antigen in 2008 and 2013. From the results of present study, it became clear that the prevalence of Giardia infection in pet shop puppies was not decreased during recent past five years. And it was suggested that the countermeasure for Giardia infection was not developed in pet shop puppies.
It is unclear to what degree pet owners visiting animal hospitals understand medical terms which are used in veterinary practice. In this paper, clients of three animal hospitals were asked to fill out a questionnaire. One hundred and ten pet owners living with 73 dogs, 32 cats and/or 9 miscellaneous pets participated in this survey. We made a list of 25 veterinary clinical terms which covers such popular words as diabetes and side effect to such unfamiliar words as zoonosis or remission. First, participants were asked whether or not they had ever heard of each term. If they were aware of them, their degree of understanding of each word was checked. The rate of correct understanding was 2.0-99.0%, and the rate of misunderstanding was 0.0-32.4%. These results suggested that veterinary staff should be careful in using technical terms. For example, knowledge of the terms ‘side effect’ or ‘anemia’ is very common, but pet owners often misunderstand the correct meaning. For another example, pet owners need additional explanation of ‘zoonosis’ or ‘lameness’, because such words are frequently used in veterinary field, but seldom in human medicine.