In 17 Cocker Spaniels diagnosed as having multiple potrtosystemic shunts by ultrasonography and/or portal catheter tests, clinical signs, diagnositic findings, and the outcome of survival or death were investigated on the basis of medical records. The average age of the onset was 3 years and 6 months, and there was no sex difference. All cases had such clinical signs as weight loss (14 cases, 82%) or ascites (13 cases, 76%). In biochemical analyses, the activity of liver enzymes was high in 15- 17 cases (88-100%). An increase in the concentrations of fasting blood ammonia and fasting serum total bile acids were seen, and a decrease in the concentration of serum albumin was seen in 16 cases (94%). In ultrasonography, multiple abnormal blood vessels were found around the left kidney in 16 cases (94%). In seven dogs which underwent laparotomy, multiple abnormal blood vessels were easily seen macroscopically, and the surface of the liver appeared irregular. The most common pathologic finding was hyperplasy of the small bile ducts. The average survival period after the initial diagnosis was 604 days. Ten dogs died within 1 year. Their poor prognoses were thought to be attributable to juvenile outset, hemorrhagic bowel discharge, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increase in BUN, and development of hepatic failure.
In five dogs with heptocellular carcinoma (HCC), contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed using Sonazoid®. All tumors were surgically removed and examined histopathologically, including the grade of tumor diffentiation and vascularity. The necrotic lesions, if any, were checked, and the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic findings and the histopathologic findings were compared. Consequently, peripheral- and intra-tumoral blood vessels were clearly observed in four cases during the arterial phase. Poorly- or moderately-differentiated HCC (Cases 1 and 2) showed hypo-enhancement in the portal phase, but were hypo-echoic in the surrounding normal liver, that is, the parenchymal phase. On the other hand, well-differentiated HCC (Cases 3, 4, and 5) showed iso-enhancement or hyper-enhancement during the portal phase, but were iso-echoic in the parenchymal phase. A mosaic pattern containing both hyper- and hypo-enhancement lesions during the vascular phase (Cases 1, 2, and 5) was consistent with necrotic lesions detected histopathologically, but no necrotic lesions were observed in Case 3 or 4, which showed a uniform enhancement pattern. In conclusion, contrast ultrasonography using Sonazoid® may reflect pathological findings such as tumor differentiation, vascularity, and necrotic lesions in canine HCC, just as in human HCC.
To establish proper reference values for blood chemistry tests is crucial, but in veterinary field values may vary according to breed, in addition to age and gender. No such specific research has been done in veterinary medicine. In this study, we collected biochemistry data of healthy dogs by ʻdrychemistry methodʼ (n=3,303), and compared the values of 20 items among different breeds. Little difference was detected in most items, but some items such as creatinine (CRE) showed clear difference among breeds. The CRE values of small breed dogs had a lower range, and those of large breed dogs had a higher range. In conclusion, it is not necessary to use breed-by-breed reference in daily practice, but taking account of breed difference is helpful in judging difficult cases with borderline values.
We report two cases of canine hepatocutaneous syndrome, and describe the detailed clinical courses and histopathological findings. Two dogs suffered from refractory erosion of the lips, eyelids, and/or perinea, and keratinization of the metacarpal footpads. The first dog showed adrenal cortical hyperfunction and had an enlarged left adrenal gland, which was removed surgically. The disease was diagnosed as adrenal hyperplasma histopathologically. The postoperative course was poor, and the dog died 32 days after the operation. In the second dog, a hepatocellular tumor was found by ultrasonography. After surgical removal of the tumor, which was later diagnosed as a hepatocellular carcinoma histopathologically, the patient improved dramatically. However, the hepatocutaneous syndrome reappeared when the carcinoma recurred. The dog died 292 days after the operation.
Hemisection or trisection (coronoradicular resection) was performed to treat multi-rooted teeth with periodontal or endodontic disease. The crown of each affected tooth was sectioned into two or three parts, and only the damaged root was removed with its corresponding part of the crown. Before root canal treatment, eight teeth in five dogs had been suffered from vertical bone defect due to periodontal diseases: two teeth in two dogs had been fractured resulting in pulp exposure. The saved roots of five teeth were treated by pulpectomy and pulp filling, and those of the other five teeth received vital pulpotomy. The post-operative course of nine teeth has been good to date, one of which has survived approximately for 4 years, although the saved portion of one tooth had to be extracted 426 days after surgery, because of increased periapical radiolucency and enlargement of the periodontal space.