The object of our study is to test a method of surgical correction of tibial dysplasia in miniature dachshunds. Six cases in five dachshunds with deformity of the hindlimb(s) were successfully corrected. Closed and open wedge osteotomies were compared, and open wedge osteotomy had the advantage of less shortening of the hindlimb and quicker bone adhesion after surgery. Morphologic analysis of normal tibiae of 14 average dachshunds was helpful in planning the surgery and in checking the knee joint during the operation. For fixation after surgical correction, we used an IMEX circular external fixator hybrid construct, which consists of one ring and several half pins. The device enabled us to cut off a bone tip at a more distal part of the tibra, which lessened the axis distortion, restoring the dogs' appearance to almost normal. In all six cases, lameness disappeared by postoperative day 14, and motor function seemed to be improved after removal of the device.
Canine narcolepsy is characterized by cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone while awake and active, and is typically triggered by emotional stimulation such as play or the presentation of food. Compounds enhancing monoaminergic neurotransmission have been reported to reduce cataplexy. We report a male Chihuahua with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy that was treated with four anticataplectic agents in sequence at various dosages for more than four years since age two: imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant), yohimbine (alpha-2 adrenoreceptor antagonist), sulpiride (D2/D3 antagonist), and milnacipran (serotonin-and noradrenaline-selective reuptake inhibitor) were given orally. A single kind of medicine was continuously administered for a certain period of time, and switched to another, after judging the curative effects. Numerical evaluation showed that all agents except sulpiride reduced cataplexy, and that yohimbine, which was used most repeatedly for the longest period in total in this case, was steadily effective against cataplexy and also reduced the dog's daytime drowsiness without side effects. In clinical practice, careful selection of anticataplectic agents is necessary because the preferable medicine may differ depending on species and/or individual variation.
Compact blood glucose monitors are widely used by diabetics to self-monitor their blood glucose levels. The authors assessed the performance of one of these devices, the Medisafe Mini, for use on dogs and cats. Simultaneous reproducibility, using venous blood, yielded good results, with CV values for dogs in the normal and high blood sugar ranges of 4.2% and 7.9%, respectively; and for cats in the normal and high blood sugar ranges of 2.8% and 5.3%, respectively. The relationship between canine and feline venous blood glucose values derived from the Medisafe Mini and those derived using liquid reagents showed a significant level of correlation, with the correlation coefficient of r = 0.990 (p < 0.0001) and r = 0.993 (P < 0.0001) respectively. The blood glucose levels of two different sources of canine blood-venous blood and blood taken from ear pricks-also showed a significant degree of correlation, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.983 (p < 0.0001). Cat blood glucose readings from the Medisafe Mini were compared with values derived using liquid reagents and a correlation was determined. Glucose level measurements of both venous and blood taken from ear pricks were also found to be correlated, although the readings derived using liquid chemical reagents were higher, in the case of cats. Errors were reduced by careful adherence to the proper measurement procedures. The Medisafe Mini blood glucose monitor was considered sufficiently accurate for measuring glucose levels in blood taken from ear pricks of diabetic cats and dogs.
A one-year and eleven-month old female shi-zu dog was referred to us three days after being diagnosed with neutropenia. Blood tests revealed mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, and markcd neutropeneia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed an increase in amorphous mucosal background matter and the remains of dead cells, and an increase in phagocytic macrophages, which established the diagnosis of bone marrow necrosis. The dog was treated with immunosuppressive medicines, and recovered favorably, but is still under treatment with cyclosporine alone.
A method of diagnosing canine Babesia gibsoni infection based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using template DNA extracted from peripheral blood has been recently developed, and used clinically. In the present study, using dogs infected spontaneously with Babesia gibsoni, the sensitivity and specificity of a modified PCR method based on the direct use of whole blood was assessed, in the hope of saving time and labor and reducing the risk of contamination. Both the direct and usual methods were tested, and compared in 31 dogs with suspected babesiosis. The usual PCR method detected the B. gibsoni-specific gene P18 in 26 dogs, and this gene was detected in all 26 dogs by the direct PCR method as well. The sensitivity of the direct PCR method was 0.07 %, in the contrast to the 0.0007 % of the usual method. Thus the sensitivity of the direct PCR method was lower than that of the usual PCR method, but it was still higher than that of the microscopic method using smears. These results showed that the direct PCR method was sufficiently accurate in diagnosing the infection clinically, and in addition it was easier to perform and provided quicker results. In conclusion, the direct PCR method is practical and useful for diagnosis of Babesia Infection.