Twenty-eight dogs with massive hepatocellular carcinomas were surgically treated, and are reviewed here. Twenty-two dogs (78.6%) showed non-specific clinical signs, and the others were asymptomatic. In biochemical analysis, activity of aminotransferase was high in all 28 dogs (100%), and alkaline phosphatase was high in 27 dogs (96.4%). Preoperative computed tomography was very useful for identification of an afflicted liver lobe, and for surgical simulation. Complete lobectomy of diseased liver lobes was performed in almost all cases. The operation resulted in three perioperative deaths (10.7% perioperative mortality), and 25 long-term survivals. The median survival time was 1,431 days (range, 0 to 2,567 days). Of the survival cases, recurrence or metastasis was found only in 4 cases (16%), where the high preoperative value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tended to fall after surgery, but tended to rise again when the disease recurred. In conclusion, surgical resection is a good choice for treatment, since the majority of dogs with massive hepatocellular carcinomas recovered completely after the resection. In addition, AFP might be useful for monitoring postoperative recurrence.
From January 2002 to June 2009, cases of methicillin-resistant staphylococcui (MRS) have increased rapidly among small animals visiting our hospital with bacterial infection. During this period, there were 41 cases of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) resistant to methicillin (MRSIG), 15 cases of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), and 1 case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although all MRS isolates detected in our hospital were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalexin, and cerdinir, 98% and 51% of MRSIG cases were sensitive to doxycycline (DOXY) and chloramphenicol (CP), respectively, and 87%, 53%, and 47% of MRCoNS were sensitive to DOXY, CP, and gentamicin, respectively. After administration of suitable antibiotics, 93% of all cases improved.
Six turtles diagnosed as suffering from otitis media were treated surgically. The main complaint was proptosis of the tympanic membrane, and anorexia and lethargy were also seen. First, lidocaine-hydrochloride spray was applied onto the tympanic membrane for topical anesthesia. With the head fixed softly between the fingers, the tympanic membrane was cut along a semicircular line from the direction of three o'clock to nine o'clock, and the lesion was cleaned. In four cases, the incision was done with a scalpel, and some of the turtles became violent during surgery due to bleeding and pain caused by the scalpel. In the other two cases, a carbon dioxide laser was used. The carbon dioxide laser was easier to do for the operation, and did not cause bleeding. Consequently, the operating time was much shorter.
A 12-year-old, female Labrador retriever was brought to our hospital with lameness of the left thoracic limb. A neurologic examination revealed hyporeflexia of the forelimb. As the pet owner declined further clinical tests, the dog gradually became worse, and was euthanized on day 275. In necropsy, a mass was found in the caudal cervical vertebral canal and 6-7th intervertebral foramen. Histologically it was confirmed as a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and chondro-osseous differentiation was also seen. The incidence of this kind of nerve tumor is relatively high in dogs, but is seldom accompanied by differentiation in one tumor. Our case is rare in dogs.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was successfully occluded using a coil, and the process was perioperatively observed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in an eight-month papillon which had been diagnosed as suffering from PDA. We were able to confirm the disappearance of the remaining blood flow during the procedure by TEE in addition to auscultation and cardiac angiography. Conventionally confirmation has been done by auscultation during the operation and by cardiac angiography only after coil occlusion, although auscultation is not very reliable. There were no complications due to placing a probe in the esophagus or stomach. The advantages of using TEE for coil occlusion of PDA are real-time monitoring of the condition of the ductus arteriosus, quicker response and higher sensitivity of TEE images than those of cardiac angiography, and continuous monitoring including heart mobility after coil occlusion.
To examine trends in composition of bile acid conjugate fraction in gallbladder bile from dogs with hypothyroidism, blood bile acid conjugate fraction was measured in seven dogs with hypothyroidism (Nos.1 to 7) and six control dogs (Nos.8 to 13). In addition, to examine the effect of hormone replacement therapy, blood bile acid conjugate fraction and ultrasonic findings for biliary deposit were compared before and during the therapy in dogs 1 and 2. In the diseased dogs, TUDCA, UDCA, CA, GCDCA, CDCA and DCA were detected as well as the components detected in the control dogs; the percentage of TDCA was decreased, but the percentages of hydrophobic, non-conjugate bile acids such as CA, CDCA and DCA were increased in comparison to the control group. Hormone replacement therapy improved hypolipidemia in dog 1 and 2; the amount of blood bile acid conjugate fraction of the two dogs became almost equal to that of the control dogs. In case 1, after 35-day medication, biliary deposit was reduced, and became mobile, although it had been immobile before the therapy. In case 2, after 8-month medication, biliary deposit was slightly increased, but was still mobile, as before therapy. Consequently, based on the measurements of blood bile acid conjugate fractions, it was presumed that hypothyroid dogs with biliary deposit have an increase of hydrophobic bile acid in the gallbladder.