A retrospective epidemiological study of canine and feline cardiovascular diseases was done based on the data from 1421 dogs and 100 cats, all of which visited our hospitals with cardiovascular problems during the past 19 years. The total number of dogs was 1648, and the percentage of congenital heart diseases, acquired heart diseases, and cardiomyopathy was 7%, 92%, and 1%, respectively. Of the congenital heart diseases, patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, atrial septal defect, and tetralogy of Fallot accounted for 28%, 18%, 15%, 12%, 12%, and 6%, respectively. Dilofilariasis, the most common heart disease in dogs, accounted for 52% of all acquired heart diseases. Following dilofilariasis, mitral regurgitation (MR), tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and caval syndrome (CS) accounted for 32%, 15%, and 6%, respectively. MR and TR were seen more frequently in small breeds, and the peak occurrence of MR and TR appeared after age 10. The peak of CS occurred at age 5, and the disease progressed to cause abnormality of the pulmonary artery and insufficiency of the right heart. The peak of these severe cardiovascular conditions occurred at age 7. Cardiomyopathy was more common in dogs younger than age 10. In a total of 103 feline cases, congenital heart diseases and cardiomyopathy occurred in 38% and 48%, respectively. Cardiomyopathy was found in male cats twice as frequently as in females.
A five-year-old Maltese dog was brought to our hospital with debilitation and vomiting. Blood tests showed hypoalbuminemia and hypoglobulinemia. We suspected that this case was protein-loosing enteropathy and a full-thickness biopsy of the small intestine led to the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A low fat diet and anti-inflammatory therapy was effective, and the clinical signs have been in remission for nearly four years.
Radiological evaluation is importantly employed for diagnosis of dental disease in rabbits. A conventional lateral, dorso-ventral and rostoro-caudal projections are required to evaluate occlusions and alignment of dental arcade but do not show detailed pathology of individual tooth because of superimposition. An oblique projection with open-mouth showed details of individual tooth structures without superimposition in a rabbit skull. A skull with open mouth was positioned in right lateral recumbence and rotated approximately 45 degree to obtain an unobstructed view of the teeth in the right maxillary quadrant including the incisors. The chin was then raised until the left mandibular dentition became parallel with the film surface to visualize the entire left mandibular quadrant clearly without overlap. The left maxillary and right mandibular quadrants were imaged in the same manner with the open-mouthed skull positioned in left lateral recumbence. This radiographic technique provided good visualization of each quadrant in clinical cases as well, and seemed to offer a very effective means of obtaining detailed information needed for dental care.