We surveyed the prevalence of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in three groups of dogs: Group A consisted of 1,104 dogs which were outpatients brought in for a regular checkup, Group C consisted of 120 dogs being kept at two breeding kennels, and Group B consisted of 74 beagles, as controls. Each dog was tested for Brucella canis (B.canis) antibodies by heat extracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HE-ELISA) and by a microplate agglutination (MA) test. In Group A, six dogs were positive for B.canis antibody (0.54%), and 1,073 dogs were negative (97.2%). In Group C, 26 dogs were positive (21.7%), and Group B dogs were all negative. There was a significant difference between the ratios of Groups A, B, and C. In Group A, four out of six positive dogs had originally been kept in breeding kennels, but these six dogs did not show any characteristic symptoms of the disease. In Group C, only three of 26 positive dogs showed symptoms such as miscarriage and orchitis. In other words, infected dogs did not always show any symptoms. It is not necessary to be too strict at ordinary animal clinics because B.canis is rarely found in these clinics. On the other hand, stricter regulations are needed to prevent the disease from spreading from breeding kennels.
The efficacy of anti-inflammatory action of difluprednate (DFBA), a difluorinated derivative of prednisolone, was compared with betamethasone (BM), which is used conventionally in veterinary medicine. The survey was conducted between a 0.05% DFBA ophthalmic emulsion and a 0.1% BM ophthalmic solution using 51 dogs with anterior uveitis. There were no significant difference in the efficacy rates between DFBA (86.2%, 25/29) and BM (86.4%, 19/22). Clinical symptoms such as lacrimation, photophobia, blepharospam and discharge of eye mucus were improved after 2-week administration in both groups. A cloudy appearance of the anterior chamber and ciliary flush, both of which are characteristic signs of anterior uveitis, were also improved in both groups. DFBA was efficient against iris swelling, miosis, and iris color change, but BM was not. Elevation of intraocular pressure was found in the BM Group, but not in the DFBA Group. DFBA has been reported to have higher permeability in the iris than BM, and our observation confirmed this. No side effects were seen in either eye drops. In conclusion, DFBA has a therapeutic effect comparable to BM in dogs with anterior uveitis.
Two cats that demonstrated increase of the urinary protein and the urinary cast, as well as the decline of urinary concentration function, during the treatment of the bacterial cystitis and after the lumbricidal and depulization were diagnosed with the renal failure medicamentosa. In Case 1, the selection of a wrong antibiotic and its overdose was suspected as the cause of the symptoms, where the tubular failure was observed.? Dosing adequate an antibiotic and adequate volume resulted in the cure. In Case 2, dosing of the parasiticide to a juvenile animal reached the intoxicating dose level, and the glomerulus and tublointerstitial failure were strongly observed.? Steroid was used for the treatment and showed marked effect, but the failure of urinary concentration function remained. Further, as a background to the renal failure medicamentosa, it is thought that in Case 1, the volume of antibiotic dosed increased with each new hospital, and in Case 2 overdose to a juvenile animal with immature the renal function was suspected. Clinical vets must consider the appropriate amount of dose with care.
In our veterinary clinic, 411 dogs participated in our puppy socialization classes during the last seven years. The most common breeds were toy poodles, chihuahuas, and miniature dachshunds. Dogs of these three breeds were divided into two groups: one consisted of class-participants, and the other, of non-participants. We compared the two groups of each breed regarding the number sterilized or castrated, the number vaccinated, and the number receiving heartworm disease preventive medicine, and the frequency of their visits to our clinic each year. Group One dogs showed higher rates in all items listed above, and more frequent visits. This study indicated that participating in a puppy socialization class has various good effects, such as more awareness of health care of the dogs, which promoted more frequent visits to our clinic later, as well as encouraging puppies to become socialized, and helping dog owners to learn appropriate puppy training.
We report a combination therapy of volume reduction surgery and postoperative hypofractionated radiotherapy of an osteosarcoma in the nasal cavity of a dog. A6-year-old, castrated Great Pyrenees was brought to our hospital with a main complaint of bleeding from the left nasal cavity.As X-ray examination showed increased impermeability in the left nasal cavity, computed tomography (CT) and biopsy were performed.Histopathologically the disease was diagnosed as an osteosarcorma, and the severity of the disease was classified as T1N0M0 according to the TNM Classification by the WHO, because no distant metastasis was seen.After a volume reduction was surgically performed on day 24, megavoltage radiation therapy was conducted at 36 Gy/6 times/3 weeks. CT of the head and chest performed on days 188 and 259 showed no tumor recurrence or distant metastases to the lung.Necrotic nasal bone fragments were removed on day 416, and a nasal mucosa biopsy was done at the same time.The biopsy revealed recurrence of the osteosarcoma.As infiltration into the caudal side of the left maxillary canine tooth became noticeable, local thermal ablation was performed on day 869.Masses in the lung and spleen, however, were found on day 969, and the dog died on day 1012.The patient had survived for a total of 33 months.
We examined a total of 155 clinically healthy dogs aged 4-9 weeks being kept in 5 pet shops in Japan for prevalence of canine coronavirus I (CCoV-I), canine coronavirus II (CCoV-II), and canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) infections using RT-PCR or PCR techniques. Genes for these viruses were detected in 84 (54.2%), 39 (25.2%), and 4 (2.6%) dogs, respectively. We compared these results with those of our previous study, in which the prevalence of these viruses had been investigated among diarrheic dogs aged under a year using the same techniques (Soma et al 2011). There was no significant difference for the detection rate of CCoV-I gene between the 2 studies (p>0.05), whereas the detection rates of CCoV-II and CPV-2 genes of clinically healthy dogs were significantly lower than those of diarrheic dogs in our previous study (47.5%, p=0.0005 and 43.8%, p<0.0001, respectively). These findings suggest that these viruses, especially CCoV-I and II, may be latent in not a few dogs kept in pet shops, and that CCoV-II and CPV-2 are notable causal factors of diarrhea.