In veterinary dentistry, patients undergoing oral surgery often experience hypothermia during anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether warm-water treatment could prevent hypothermia during anesthesia in dogs with periodontal disease. Twenty-three dogs with moderate or severe periodontal disease were included in the study. The dogs were treated with warm water (T=33.9℃; n=12) or cold water (T=24.4℃; n=11) under general anesthesia. The study end point was when the rectal temperature reached 36.9℃, after which rewarming was started. No significant difference (p=2.08) was observed in the rate of decrease in temperature between the warm-water and cold-water groups. However, the rate of increase in temperature after rewarming was higher in the warm-water group than in the cold-water group (p=0.0037).
Feline juvenile periodontal disease, which is characterized by the onset of gingivitis and periodontitis during the transition from deciduous to permanent dentition, can be divided into two major categories: hyperplastic gingivitis or juvenile periodontitis. In the present case, a 4.5-month-old cat showed severe gingivitis and periodontitis, which led to the diagnosis of juvenile periodontitis. The patient did not respond to standard medical treatment with antibiotics and steroids. The extraction of all the premolars and molars, including not only the severely involved teeth with gingivitis and gingival recession but also the adjacent healthy teeth, led to symptomatic improvement. The results obtained by this treatment method in the present case suggest that the extraction of all the premolars and molars may be an effective treatment option for non-responders to the first-line treatment regimen consisting of scaling and medical therapy.
A 12-year-old, spayed female beagle was referred to us with an enlargement of the superficial lymph nodes. The dog was diagnosed as having multicentric high-grade B cell lymphoma with hypercalcemia and monoclonal gammopathy. Remission of lymphadenopathy was observed following treatment with UW25 (the University of Wisconsin-Madison protocol); however, both hypercalcemia and monoclonal gammopathy persisted. In addition, the dog was found to have developed a subcutaneous mass. Histological and polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the subcutaneous mass was a large B cell lymphoma. Treatment with melphalan and prednisolone resulted in immediate improvement with regard to hypercalcemia and monoclonal gammopathy. Thus, the dog had two separate clinical manifestations that responded differently to therapy.
Papillomas can be of papillomaviral or nonviral origin. Papillomas of the conjunctiva in dogs have been described infrequently, and most published reports have elucidated the association with papillomavirus infection. Only one previous study has described conjunctival squamous papillomas that did not express papillomavirus proteins. Here, we report an intact female Chihuahua, aged 9 years and 11 months, that presented with a localized papillomatous lesion on the bulbar conjunctiva of the left eye. The entire conjunctival lesion was surgically removed and submitted for histopathological examination. The findings of the examination confirmed the diagnosis of a squamous papilloma; however, cellular vacuolization, which is often present in viral infection, was observed in some parts of the epithelium. We performed immunohistochemical tests using an anti-bovine papilloma virus antibody and did not observe papillomavirus antigens in the lesion. This study demonstrated that histopathological examination can distinguish between the viral and nonviral conjunctival papillomas, and that virological analysis is a useful diagnostic aid for suspected cases of viral infection, such as the present case.
An 8-year-old, castrated miniature dachshund with anorexia and dysuria was referred to our hospital. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography revealed an enlarged prostate with mineralization. Atypical epithelial cells were noted on cytological examination. Urinary obstruction following prostatic tumor was suspected and total cystoprostatectomy was performed. On the basis of a histopathological examination, the dog was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Although urinary obstruction resolved after surgical treatment, the tumor underwent early progression, and the dog died 97 days after the initial consultation. Complete resection of prostatic carcinomas may be difficult, and adjuvant therapy is needed to manage tumor progression. The benefit of systemic therapy for managing prostatic carcinoma is unclear; therefore, careful consideration is needed when using cystoprostatectomy for patients with prostatic carcinoma, even if macroscopic metastatic lesions are not detected. Moreover, cystoprostatectomy alone may not prolong the survival time of patients with prostatic carcinoma.