In this study, five cats with systolic heart failure were administered pimobendan, and the effectiveness of the drug was investigated by observing the changes in heart function and clinical symptoms. Two weeks after the drug was given to each dog orally at the dosage of 0.18-0.38 mg/kg twice a day, its effectiveness was evaluated, and compared to the condition of the cats before administration. The left ventricle-fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output, and systolic blood pressure were significantly increased, and the ratio of the left atrium to the aortic root, and the left ventricular diameter at the end of systole were significantly decreased. Pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and ascites, which had been present before the medication, were resolved, and the condition of the cats was clearly improved according to the New York Heart Association Classification. The mean survival time was prolonged from 52 days to 406 (with median of 203 days). From these results, pimobenndan was judged to have a positive effect on systolic function, reduction of preload, and improvement of quality of life of cats with systolic heart failure.
Caudal occipital malformation syndrome (COMS) in dogs is a disorder similar to human Chiari type-1 malformation. With increased availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), COMS has come to be recognized as an increasingly prevalent condition in dogs. We made a retrospective study of 30 dogs in which COMS was diagnosed by MRI in order to identify the clinical signs and neurological findings, and elucidate their relationship to the MRI results. The most frequent clinical signs and neurological findings were seizures, vestibular syndrome, and depressed postural reactions. MRI disclosed herniation of the cerebellum compatible with a Chiari type-1 malformation, attenuation or obliteration of the dorsal subarachnoid space at the cervicomedullary junction, and rostral displacement of the caudal cerebellum by the occipital bone. In some dogs, a "kinked" appearance of the caudal medulla, hydrocephalus or enlarged lateral ventricle, and syringohydromyelia were also noted. The clinical signs and neurological findings showed no correlation with the MRI results. In dogs, therefore, MRI is necessary for diagnosing COMS and leading to a plan for management and treatment of the syndrome.
Two cats with lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and polydipsia were diagnosed as having diabetic ketoacidosis, and were initially treated with insulin. But they developed hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia, and in addition, severe hemolytic anemia probably caused by hypophosphatemia. In one of the cats, heinz body formation was also seen in the red blood cells. Hemolytic anemia of both cats was improved by frequent monitoring and correcting the concentrations of serum phosphates. We found it important to prevent hemolytic anemia caused by hypophosphatemia from occurring in order to treat cats with diabetic ketoacidosis. In other words, we need to measure serum phosphate concentrations frequently and correct their titer during insulin therapy.
A 4-year-old Basenji with glycosuria was brought to our hospital. Blood glucose was normal, but aciduria and metabolic acidosis were found; we diagnosed the dog as suffering from a specific hereditary disease, Fanconi syndrome, which was established later by genetic tests. Bicarbonate treatment was started and continued according to Gonto's management protocol of Fanconi disease. The dog's physical condition has been good since then, although mild metabolic acidosis and hypophosphatemia are still present.
The prevalence of intestinal parasites in feces of 124 young dogs (1-6 months) was evaluated using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. They were 41 private household dogs that had been purchased a week or less previously, directly from 37 breeding kennels in 20 Prefectures, and 83 dogs kept at 10 breeding kennels in 8 Prefectures. Overall, intestinal parasites were detected at a prevalence of 45.2% (56/124). The prevalence of Giardia sp., Isospora spp., Toxocara canis, Strongyloides stercoralis was 29.8% (37/124), 13.7% (17/124), and 4.8% (6/124), and 3.2% (4/124), respectively. The results suggest that in Japan the major parasites in young dogs from breeding kennels are Giardia sp. and Isospora spp..