地学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1884-0884
Print ISSN : 0022-135X
ISSN-L : 0022-135X
103 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の15件中1~15を表示しています
  • 山下 潤
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 603-622
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では, 精神的・肉体的に虚弱な老人のための施設である, デイサービスセンターと短期保護施設の最適立地を求めた。デイサービスセンターでは, 虚弱老人に対して, 目中さまざまなサービスが提供されている。したがって, 介護者が虚弱な高齢者を容易に輸送するため, デイサービスセンターは虚弱老人の住居近くに立地することが望ましい。短期保護施設では, 一定期間, 虚弱老人に対してより高水準の社会サービスが施されている。デイサービスセンターと異なり, 短期保護施設は虚弱老人の住居近くに立地する必要はない。なぜなら, 虚弱老人は短期保護施設と住居との問を毎目通う必要がないからである。デイサービスセンターと短期保護施設に対する需要における距離弾性の違いを考慮できるので, デイサービスセンターと短期保護施設の最適立地を求める際に, 階層的一般化pメジアンモデルは適している。この階層的一般化pメジアンモデルにおいて, 松本市の老年人口とネットワーク上の時間距離を用いて, 総輸送費用を最小化した。松本市における老年人口率と自動車保有率が高いことが, 松本市を研究対象地域に選定した理由である。階層的一般化pメジアン問題を, 2つのシナリオに沿って解いた。シナリオ1では, 14のデイサービスセンターの立地点から5つの短期保護施設の立地点を選択した。バックアップシステムと称されるシナリオ2では, 14のデイサービスセンターの立地点以外の場所から5つの短期保護施設の立地点を選択した。分析の結果, シナリオ1と2から得られたデイサービスセンターの最適立地点は都市内に分散して分布し, 短期保護施設の最適立地点はランダムに分布している。これらの最適立地点は, 既存のデイサービスセンターや短期保護施設の立地点と異なる。松本市において, デイサービスセンターと短期保護施設が都市の中心部で少ないことが分かった。既存の施設が都市の周辺部に立地しているので, 虚弱老人は長距離の移動を強いられている。高い地価と有害施設としての虚弱老人向け施設のイメージが, デイサービスセンターと短期保護施設を都市の周辺部に立地させている理由であると考えられる。
  • 塚脇 真二, 大河原 正文, リァン ラオ キム, 多田 元彦
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 623-636
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    カンボジア中部に位置するトンレサップ湖は, 雨季と乾季とでその冠水面積が3倍以上にも変化し, 季節的水位変動に支配された特異な堆積作用の存在が予想される。また, 同湖はインドシナ半島最大の湖であり, 湖底堆積物には同半島における地域的気候・環境変動が記録されている可能性がある。そこで, トンレサップ湖研究の第一段階として, 湖の北部, 同湖とメコン河とを連絡し雨季に同湖へと逆流するトンレサップ川, ならびに湖の周辺に分布する沖積層の堆積物組成から同湖における堆積作用の予察的検討を行なった。
    その結果, 粘土鉱物組成にもとづき, トンレサップ湖北部の湖底堆積物は, 沖積層ならびにメコン河水系に分布する地質岩体の双方を起源とし, 堆積物はおもに雨季に湖に流入することが判明した。また, 同湖での存在が確認された海洋性レリックから, 過去の高海水準期における同湖の南シナ海との連絡が推定された。さらに, 湖底堆積物に雨季と乾季との季節変化記録の可能性が示された。
  • 佐々木 史郎
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 637-652
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The floor structure in Korean folk housing can be classified into three types such as the ondol floor, the dirt floor, and the wooden floor. Among them, the ondol, which is the traditional floor heating system in Korea, becomes a common element to be used in the bedroom. On the other hand, the wooden floor is not necessarily an indispensable element, although it is given an important position in the middle or the large size house. This wooden floor has been i hought to have been developed as the living space for summer life especially in the southern part, and to have been originated from the raised floor construction, or the pile dwellingso-call ed, in the southern culture. In fact, however, we can observe some different tendency there. Major points of the regional characteristics of wooden floor rooms in Korean houses are summarized as follows :
    South of the central part of the Korean Peninsula, the wooden floor part occupies actually a considerable area in the whole floor of the house. It is rather in the central part, however, that the wooden floor room is used as an open living space for summer life. On the contrary, one can often observe it to be used only as a closed storeroom for grain and a sacred space for household deity in the southern part where it gets hotter and more humid in summer.
    In Cheju island, located south of the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula, the wooden floor room becomes a living space as well as in the central part. The name of the wooden floor room and its use for ritual ceremony in Cheju houses, however, differ obviously from those in the central part. Moreover, the floor height of wooden floor room is considerably lower in Cheju Island than in the main land. Therefore, it seems difficult to identify the wooden floor rooms in all part of Korea uniformly with the original raised floor construction in the southern culture.
    In Cheju Island, where the ondol system was introduced much later than the main land, the wooden floor room may have been established as a partial conversion of the original dirt floor dwelling but not as a traditional way of the pile dwelling in the southern culture. On the other hand, the raised wooden floor room in the main land may be supposed to be developed in the floor plan through the rising process of the floor accompanied by the introduction of the ondol system which has underfloor flues through which the hot smoke flows.
  • 天野 和孝
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 653-673
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Pliocene molluscacn fauna and its paleoenvironmental setting of Matsunoyama-machi, Niigata Prefecture, are important for considering succession from Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene shallow sea faunas in Japan Sea borderland as well as considering paleoenvironmental change in the northern Fossa Magna Region.
    Pliocene deposits in the southeastern flank of Matsunoyama Anticline consist of the Kurokura, Higashigawa, Ikenosawagawa, Arikurayama formations from lower to upper. In the northwestern flank, the Higashigawa formation is conformably covered with the Naradate. Every formations is in conform able relation involving partial development of a contemporaneous heterotopic facies relation.
    Many cold-water species are included among Pliocene molluscan fauna in this area. Only a few horizons yielding warm-water species are recognized in the Higashigawa and the Ikenosawagawa formations.
    Seven associations are discriminated in the molluscan faunas of this area. Based on the faunal analyses, it has become clear that this area was in an upper bathyal zone in the Early Pliocene, and the sea became shallower subsequently. In the middle Pliocene, the area in the southeastern flank of Matsunoyama Anticline was in an embayment-tidal zone, whereas that in the northwestern one was in an upper sublittoral zone.
  • 若林 裕之, 西尾 文彦, 青田 昌秋, 高橋 修平
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 674-683
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    From the overall analyses of the data from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs) on Japanese Earth Resource Satellite-1 (JERS-1/JSAR) and ESA Remote sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1/AMI), the data from the high resolution optical sensor on French earth observation satellite (SPOT), and the truth data acquired on the ground, the interesting results about the ice cover on Lake Saroma and the sea ice in the Sea of Okhotsk were obtained as follows :
    (1) Backscatter ranges for the ice cover on Lake Saroma were -10.2 to -5.0 dB for AMI and -17.7 to -13.6dB for JSAR at the sampling sites. The ice on Lake Saroma was classified byusing HRV data and the visual observation from the boat, then the backscatter intensity for each ice type was confirmed.
    (2) A method for making a mosaic image using SAR data was developed and demonstrated. Comparing JSAR and AMI mosaic images at the same area, it was found that JSAR can clearly discriminate the sea ice and the open water, while AMI cannot distinguish them. The reason of this difference is supposed to be difference of frequency and incidence angle.
    (3) When the ice becomes thicker, the backscattering intensity decreases in AMI data. It is estimated that the backscatter changes corresponding to the dielectric constant for ice, which is related to the ice surface temperature.
  • 伊藤 孝, 小川 勇二郎
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 684-695
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The chemistry of ferromanganese oxides coating pumice gravels and muddy sediment cores taken by the Research Dive 134 of the submersible “Shinkai 6500” from the oceanward slope of the Japan Trench off Miyako, Iwate Prefecture, are described. The ferromanganese coatings are quite thin and are poor in heavy metal elements including Fe and Mn, compared with previously reported ferromanganese nodules and crusts, from the seamounts and ridges in the Japan and Ogasawara Trenches. In the Fe-Mn- (Cu+Ni+Zn) × 10 ternary plot, the published ferromanganese nodules and crusts fall on a typical hydrogenous region, but the ferromanganese coatings in this study lie between hydrogenous and oxic diagenesis regions. This suggests that the former were formed by direct precipitation of colloidal metal oxides from seawater, while the latter grew by elemental supply both from pore waters in the underlying sediments and by the direct precipitation of colloidal particles. The differences of the accretionary process in the ferromanganese oxides from some of the trench areas, are caused by local environmental variations, related to the topography and sedimentary conditions including bottom currents.
  • 吉田 明夫, 高山 博之
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 696-705
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    We show that seismic activity decreased clearly in a wide area before the 1953 Boso-oki earthquake and the 1972 Hechijojima-toho-oki earthquake. In both cases the seismic quiescence extended to the Tokyo Metropolitan area. Marking precursory activity appeared several years before the Boso-oki earthquake in the Chiba prefecture and in the sea region off-Ibaraki prefecture. It is also noted that the seismicity in the Kanto region as well as in the sea region south off-Boso Peninsula decreased conspicuously after the Boso-oki earthquake. On the contrary an increase of the seismicity was observed after the Hachijojima-toho-oki earthquake, although deep seismic activities decreased remarkably. We show that seismic quiescences preceding the Boso-oki earthquake and the Hachijojima-toho-oki earthquake were detectable before their occurrences, and no other statistically significant quiescence has appeared in the south off-Kanto region since 1926. It is proposed that the occurrence of a large earthquake may be predicted by monitoring changes of the seismicity in a wide area.
  • 小川 勇二郎
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 706-718
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The cracks on the sea bottom in the middle of the oceanward slope of the northern Japan Trench off Miyako, Iwate Prefecture, in the depth of 6, 280-6, 210 m, were revisited during Research Dive 134 of “Shinkai 6500”, in July 1992. Mapping and observation including previous dives, 65, 66, 67 and 130 revealed the distribution, features and characteristics of the cracks.
    The cracks developed at the flank just above the steep cliffs, paralleling the main N-S trending trough of a horst-and-graben structure in the descending Pacific plate. The cracks have several meters depth and height, and are more or less straight, and continue for several tens of metres to several hundreds of metres. The predominant directions are either N-S or N20°E. Cracks are open, and not dislocated but stretched horizontally. Often they are branched into a Y-shape before merging again. Some are arranged in an en echelon fashion. A pressure ridge which was formed by compression of the previously open crack was found.
    Sediments in and around the cracks are soft, poorly indurated siliceous biogenic clay or claystone, and contain considerable amount of volcanic ash. Pebbles with manganese coating are abundant particularly in and around the cracks, suggesting the presence of oxidized bottom currents. The bottom current eroded the superficial part of the sediments exposing fracture cleaved mud below. Sediments that are rich in clay minerals indicate cohesion. However, if the slope suffers induced differential stress, the sediments may open up horizontally forming cracks or extensional fracture cleavages.
    This differential stress may be attributed to horizontal shaking during an earthquake, associated with the normal faulting of a horst-and-graben structure. Such an earthquake occurred underneath the study area on March 3, 1933, Magnitude 8.4.
  • 萩原 幸男
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 719
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 719a
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 長瀬 和雄
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. 722-723
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小泉 武栄
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. Plate1-Plate2
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 塚脇 真二, ラオ キム・リァン
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. Plate3-Plate4
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 佐々木 史郎
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. Plate5
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 若林 裕之, 西尾 文彦, 青田 昌秋, 高橋 修平
    1994 年 103 巻 6 号 p. Plate6-Plate8
    発行日: 1994/12/10
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
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