It is well known that glaciers in Europe have been remarkably retreating in recent period according to the climatic change. Roseg and Tschierva Glacier, descending northwest slope of Mt. Bernina (4, 049 m), eastern Swiss Alps, as a typical valley glacier system, is one of the example. The author had a chance in his cartographic research at Zurich Technical University (ETH) to compile a topographical map of glacier, using the aerial photographs taken by Swiss Federal Topographic Survey (Eidge. Landestopographie) in 1971, and to compare it with the other topographical maps which are showing glacial conditions in 1934, 1955 and 1964 respectively. As the result of comparison, it is recognized that the ice tongue of Roseg Glacier has been retreated about 1, 000 m in 37 years from 1934 to 1971, while the ice tongue of Tschierva Glacier has been retreated about 800 m in the same period. Behind the retreated Tschierva glacial tongue, undulating features of ground moraine are left in the form of river terraces according to the erosion by melted water. Lateral moraines at the both sides of the glacier have been built up as remarkable dykes with steep slopes and knife ridges, they have been, however, suffered from vigorous gully erosion on their slopes after the retreat of ice tongue. As the result of erosion, location of knife ridges were shifted outward. Especially on the left dyke the shift of ridge was reached about 70 m. Since this left dyke of lateral moraine had been built as a huge crossing barrier over Roseg glacial valley, a large glacial lake was formed in Roseg valley in consequence of dam up of melted water from the glacial tongue. In Tschierva glacial valley, half ring shaped features of old terminal moraine are recognized at the altitude of 2060 to 2070 m. According to Professor E. Spiess's opinion, these features have been formed by old glacial tongue in 1850 and are covered by bushes of Rhododendron juniperus nana. While on the ground moraine there are scarcely recognized vegetations on the aerial photographs taken in 1971. These facts perhaps show that the retreat of Tschierva Glacier amount to about 1, 000 m during the period from 1850 to 1971 has been occured not gradually and continuously but suddenly after relatively long stable period. The author considers that the retreat of about 800 m, which is the greater part of total volume has been occured in recent 37 years. On both mountain slopes of Roseg Glacier there are old moraine terraces which have been built in Ice Age. They keep still flat surfaces but their flanks present singular sight of badland and supply large quantity of detritus to make talus scarp. Two block-stream features are recognized on the gentle slope of Mt. Aguagliouls.They are considered as successors of former ground moraines. The author would like to thank Prof. E. SPIESS, Associate Prof. Ch. HOINKES and Mr. F. FURRER in Zurich Technical University for their guidance and assistance. And he is also indebted to Swiss Federal Topographic Survey for the permission to reproduce topographical map and aerial photographs.
The utilization of the package program is introduced with an example of the factor analysis on the geologic data, intending to popularize the computer application in geology. There are 'enormous amount of data and informations in geology as in other fields of science, and we cannot make good use of them without a help of the high capacity computer. However, special knowledges, experiences, time and labors are required for programming. The program package or package program has been developed for researchers to use the computer more easily and promptly. We have made efforts to prepare the package program for geologic use (GEOPAK). However, it cannot be completed in a short time, and we would like to introduce some package programs for analyzing geologic problems. There are two popular package programs in the world, the one is the BMD (Biomedical Computer Programs) and the other is the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The former is famous in the world, for its high computational ability and variety of programs, and has been introduced to almost all the institutes it the United States. The latter has an excellent data file system organically combined with many subprograms for various statistical analyses, and may be called a package program in the strict sense. The both programs have already been introduced into several computer centers in Japan and can be utilized by many scientists. To show the high usefulness of the package program some basic examples of the SPSS processings are explained at first, that is, set-up of control cards, calculation of descriptive statistics, preparation of histogram and scattergram. Then an example of multivariated analysis by using the SPSS is presented, for the multivariated analysis is one of the most important techniques of the computer application to science. Many attempts to apply the technique to geologic problems have been done showing its usefulness in various branches of geology. However, it is not easy to make up a program in each case. Under such circumstances, the SPSS has made it possible to apply the technique with very simple procedures. Besides the ordinal cards of the SPSS only a few control cards of natural language are needed for the computation. As an example a factor analysis is presented on the compositional data of sandstones of the Cretaceous Goshonoura and Himenoura Groups in Kyushu, West Japan. The purpose of the factor analysis is to clarify the structure of the data, and as the result some data structures different from those generally accepted have been clarified. For example, the amount of quartz, generally treated as a simple component of informations concerned with the composition of sandstones, has revealed to include two components. It must, therefore, be divided into two types, i.e. metamorphic quartz and igneous quartz. Some factors extracted from the data of the major compositions may be related to some ones extracted from those of the heavy minerals, i.e. the second factor of the former is equivalent to the second factor of the latter, the third factor of the former is opposite to the fourth factor of the latter. The result supports the general triangle diagram in the heavy mineral analysis whose end embers are zircon, garnet and tourmarine. Although much more examinations should be done before the data structure is clearly defined, such an examination may give us many informations on the data structure and, furthermore, many : suggestions on the collecting technique of the data. The readiness of such a complicated calculation as the factor analysis by using the SPSS helps us check a data structure before collecting and/or interpreting geological data. Some technical informations and references to use these package programs in the computer centers in Japan are also added for the beginners.
The oxygen isotope technique introduced since last two decades, has become more extensively used than any other geochemical technique for paleotemperature determination. In this paper, representative studies using this technique and the principle of the method are briefly presented and problems posed directly and indirectly from this technique are discussed. In 1947, H. C. UREY found that the ratio of stable oxygen isotopes in calcium carbonate varies with temperature at which this carbonate is produced from water. He suggested that the variation in isotope concentration can be used as a geological thermometer. UREY et al. (1951) first published a paper on paleotemperature determination. Since then many paleotemperature measurements have been published by various workers who used calcium carbonate-bearing fossil as basic materials. Few paleotemperature data from the Paleozoic Group are available at present. Those of Mesozoic paleotemperature are given by BOWEN (1966, et al.) and many other workers. As the result of the values of the Mesozoic temperature based on the belemnite shells collected from various localities in the world, the paleotemperature trend in Europe differs from those in Australia. The Tertiary temperature is known only in Australia (DORMAN, 1966), New Zealand (DEVEREUX, 1967), and Northwest Pacific (DOUGLAS et al., 1971). The paleotemperature change in the Quaternary was discussed by many workers. Among others, EMILIANI (1966) showed the generalized climatic curve during these 450, 000 years. The middle Pleistocene temperature in the Boso Peninsula is calculated by the writer and his colleagues based on the oxygen isotopic composition of the pelecypod shell. The results give the temperature ranging from 6.5°to 19.5°C. The carbonate-water temperature scale were formulated very accurately by CRAIG (1965), and HORIBE and OBA (1972). No problem arises in regard with the analytical techniques and the measurements of the oxygen isotope composition in order to calculate the paleotemperature. Three problems the paleotemperature technique is now facing are : the question of isotopic preservation, “vital effect”, and the uncertainty of the isotopic composition of ancient sea water in which the fossil organisms lived. The unaltered shells must be used as the samples of the paleotemperature measurement, because it is known that the primary oxygen isotope ratio changed during the post depositional and diagenetic processes. A few studies dealing with the problems of the original isotopic preservation are also presented. It may be considered that the calcium carbonate as shell constituents precipitates in equilibrium with the environmental water in which the shell is growing. However, oxygen isotopic compositions are different among different genera which lived in a same condition, as reported by KEITH et al. (1964) and others. Because of highly selective physiological absorption of certain oxygen isotopes, an equilibrium between precipitated calcium carbonate in organisms and surrounding water is not possibly maintained. This disharmonious phenomenon is called “vital effect”. The values of δO18 of Glycymeris are about 0.5% lower than those of Mactra collected from the same horizons. This difference may be only due to the differences in time and rate of the precipitation of calcium carbonate between the two genera. In most cases, the “vital effect” could be explained by the inorganic process of equilibrium fractionation effect for the oxygen isotope. The oxygen isotope ratio of marine shells is affected both by the temperature and salinity of the sea water. The oxygen isotopic composition of ancient water in which the fossil lived can not be known using the carbonate thermometer.