In this paper I analyze the social space of Muslim inhabitants in Amsterdam, paying particular attention to differences of residential area around the city center and its suburbs. This study is based on my fieldwork carried out from February to March 1997 in Amsterdam. The materials were collected through personal interviews. The result of the analysis showed that the residential pattern of Amsterdam experienced great change between 1990 and 1995. Since 1990, the Dutch have tended to concentrate in the northern and southern suburbs and inflow into the area. On the other hand, Moroccan and Turkish inhabitants have concentrated in eastern and western part around the city center. It is pointed out minorities concentrate in CBD and inner city, which often have low-wage jobs and low-rent housings. Lobar and housing market in Amsterdam also affected residential pattern. Ethnic clusters are located around the city center where the ratio of private let and deteriorated housing are relatively high. However, the concentrated area of ethnic minorities has gradually expanded into the suburbs in recent years. According to past studies, it is interpreted that the expansion of ethnic clusters comes from on upgrading of social and economic status. To consider whether or not the same factors also operate on or not in Amsterdam, it is necessary to look at the social space of Muslim inhabitants in two areas around the city center and the suburbs. From the responses to questions, Muslim inhabitants were classified into four types. For the sake of brevity, the members of cluster one can be labeled 'Inhabitants of the first generation live in around the city center'. Cluster two identifies 'Inhabitants of the first generation live in the suburbs'. In contrast, members falling into cluster three could be representing 'Inhabitants of the second generation live in the suburbs'. And, cluster four might be express 'Inhabitants of the second generation live in all areas of the city'. The result of the analysis clearly shows that the expansion of Muslim clusters does not originate from social and economic factors in the Dutch welfare state. More than half of the housing is managed by housing associations in Amsterdam. Because Amsterdam is situated on former marshland, building poses special problems. As Amsterdam developed concentrically, the suburban area has great number of social housing. But, most of the Muslim ingabitants have to lie in private lets around the city center. However, they have opportunities to move into social housing, due to decreas of the Dutch population from 1990 to 1995. For this reason, ethnic clusters have expanded into the suburbs in recent years. The differences between the environs of the city center and the suburbs are family constitution and years residing in Amsterdam. Muslim inhabitants live in suburban areas together with the first generation and the second generation. However, research reveals that social space in two areas consisted of similar social and economic conditions.
The sake brewers in advanced regions such as Hyogo, Aichi, and Saitama prefectures began innovations in brewing techniques to improve quality from 1890's. In contrast, the peripheral regions such as the Tohoku Area have long maintained traditional brewing techniques in order not to increase the cost of production. Therefore, the disparity in technological levels between regions expanded. Under these circumstances, the national government established the Brewing Research Laboratory to research and develop brewing techniques, which played very important roles in supporting sake brewers, as well as in promoting the introduction of new techniques to so-called peripheral regions in 1900's. They were adopted by many sake brewers in peripheral regions to make the production process easier than in the advanced region's. The interregional disparity diminished. Accordingly, the advanced regions lost their superiority in brewing technique. National sake competitions have been held since 1907. The brands produced in advanced regions lost prizes, while those in the peripheral regions won the event every year. The prizewinner was sweet, however, the others were pungent in flavor. Sweet sake was regarded as having high quality in the events. However, sweet sake has not become popular in the consumer market. Therefore, brewers in the peripheral regions could not expand their market shares. In addition, sake brewers in the advanced regions often held their own local sake competitions, and enhanced the infiltration of their brands into the markets. Taking sake brewers in Saitama Prefecture as an example, by producing sake with a somewhat light alcohol content, they could expand their market share. If sake's qualities were homogenized within a region, they could be easily differentiated from another region's sake. In the Kanto Region, the sake brewers in Saitama Prefecture homogenized the qualities of their brands; however, in Tochigi Prefecture the quality was so diverse that they could not be differentiated from other region's sake. As a consequence, sake brewers in Saitama gained more shares than Tochigi in the sake market.
We examined a hydrothermal structure of the atmosphere on the mountain slope during clear calm nights at southern slope area of Mt. Yatsugatake, central Japan. An observation was carried out in November, 1993 using various meteorological observation methods such as ground surface observations with thermometers and a thermography, and kite-balloon observations. The results showed the frequent appearance of high-altitude thermal inversion on the mountain slope. In the vertical profile of temperature, the local maximum formed by this inversion appeared approximately at around 1400 m or 1700 m a.s.l. (700 m or 1000 m from the surface). Both its appearance altitude and difference in elevation are much higher than those of the general thermal belt, which were reported in previous studies. Successive images of thermography showed the horizontal zone of this upper inversion clearly. This horizontal zone of high temperature, which is called the high-temperature layer on the slope, is sharply isolated from the lower levels near the surface, the zone of lower temperature. The high-temperature layer is characterized by a warm and dry air mass. Conversely, it is relatively cool and moist below the high-temperature layer. These characteristics are simultaneously found at the same altitude in aerological observations at Tateno and Wajima (aerological stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency). The high-temperature layer appears when anticyclones cover central Japan. Frequently, the high-temperature layer moved vertically during the night. Whereas both in the upward and the downward case, the formation process of the high-temperature layer is different from that of the general thermal belt, which goes only upward. The main factor of the high-temperature layer formation is attributed to adiabatic warming by subsidence flow in the anticyclone.