Coal geology is induced from the general geologic phenomena investigated in coal exploration and researches relevant to coal. Therefore coal geology has been progressing in accordance with coal mining and utilization. Progress of coal geology in Japan was impeded its progress in 1960s due to declining domestic coal mining and influence of misunderstood cyclothem concept in most of researches. However, a few geologists tried to investigate the deeper areas, far beyond economical exploration, by means of depositional modeling of the already developed areas. Recent progress in coal geology in the world established basin analysis with depositional modeling and verified the origin of coal-bearing formations to deltaic environments, not to cyclothem, except some of the intermontane lacustrine coal basins. Research of Recent peat swamps and interpretation of geophysical exploration have significantly contributed to the progress. For coal exploration, especially the Tertiary coal-bearing formations, basin analysis by means of measuring the directions of paleocurrents is impossible due to scarcity of sandstone outcrop where the direction of paleocurrent can be measured. Instead of such a method, the lithofacies coding method is more practical both in logging with a specially designed work sheets and in analysis of the basin with depositional modeling.
This paper is focused on the modernizing process of urban functions in Japanese cities which should remarkably transformed since the end of feudal age ; the transformation of dominant urban functions from parasitic character through central function to management function in main cities of nonmetropolitan areas. First, examining the comparative descriptions between the end of Edo Period and the early Meiji Era mentioned in 'the Annual Report of Commercial Situation (Shokyo Nenpo)' published in 1877 and 1878, we can often reveal the properties of urban functions and urban systems in the comparative descriptions with the end of Edo Period. According to such an analysis the castle towns forming the main element of Japanese urban system in feudal age can be recognized as a kind of parasitic cities, because the merchants of castle towns mainly supplied the necessary goods to samurais inhabited in their own towns. While foods and fuels were transported into castle towns from the surrounding rural areas, the merchants of castle towns could not supply many goods with the same intensity to inhabitants of the rural areas. Besides the circulation of commodities controlled within the territory of clans, Edo (the old name of Tokyo), Osaka and Kyoto functioned as the triple centers within the whole country through oversea transportation of goods. Accordingly, the hierarchical structure of two strata can be recognized in the urban system in those days : national urban system due to the triple centers and the regional and local urban systems in clan territories. The latter usually consisted of smaller areas with castle towns as a center than in the present prefectural areas. Since the Meiji Restauration in 1868 the free economic competition has become active among cities or towns. As the merchants of castle towns lost their privileges, most of castle towns declined, at least temporally. Although there are no adequate materials to analyze central place functions, it can be estimated that they played an especially important role as urban functions in the early Meiji Era except for traffic functions because manufacturing industry has still not developed. Central place functions such as administration, education, health service, etc. were gradually established in larger centers, especially in prefectural capitals. Japanese industrial revolution occurred with singular form about from 1887 to 1907. Usually, larger centers grew and smaller ones declined, although a few new industrial towns appeared. Next, the author analyzed the branch offices of companies registered in Tokyo and Hiroshima Prefectures in 'the Main Staff List of Most Companies in Japan (Nihon Zenkoku Shohaisha Yakuinroku) in 1908 and 1935 in order to investigate firm activities in both periods. In 1908 the insurance companies located in Tokyo Prefecture already formed a network of branch offices in the main cities of the whole country including the present provincial capitals, but other firms such as manufacturing, wholesale-retail companies, etc. had only a few branch offices, mainly located in Osaka. During the period 1908 to 1935 firm activities were largely developed and the number of branch offices increased evidently. We can classify the location patterns of branch offices in those days into 4 types, apart from the present location patterns in which their location in provincial capitals is dominant : the types located 1) in large markets or large cities such as Osaka, 2) in large cities in foreign countries or colonial capitals in those days, 3) in port towns such as Yokohama, Kobe, Moji, Shimonoseki, Otaru and Hakodate, and 4) in the present provincial capitals such as Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima and Fukuoka. Therefore, the present provincial capitals were still not so developed for the location of branch offices in 1935 as nowadays. In the years 1908 and 1935 Kanazawa was still an significant center.
The increasing amount of leisure time available has made the creation of space for recreation and tourism an urgent task in all industrial societies. This space not only to be adapted to the needs of its users, the tourists, but has also to the environment. Therefore a comprehensive organization on the levels of planning, management and information it necessary. This study examines the spatial organization of the Palatine in Germany as an example for a rural area that provides recreation and tourism possibilities. The Palatine is situated in the northern part of the upper Rhine Valley. It consists of mainly four parts from east to west. The population is concentrated in the Rhine Valley with large cities whose inhabitants look for the adjoining areas as recreational space. The Wine Road stretches from north to south along the foot of the mountain, with small old towns lined up among vineyard. The Palatine Forest is a mountain area about 600 m high made of red sandstone which features Germany's largest forest area, a major recreation and tourism destination designated as natural park and UNESCO biosphere reservat. That hill country to its west consists of small towns and agricultural areas. The regional planning emphasizes nature as the major tourism resource. Accordingly settlement and nature are strictly separated and tourism facilities concentrated around existing settlement area. The natural park area is managed by a special agency consisting of representatives of the regional and local authorities, but also of hiking clubs and other citizen organizations. It's aim is to maintain the “cultural landscape”, which is only possible with support of the population in the area. Information and programs for visitors also involve local authorities as well as different clubs and private tourist facilities. Hiking or bicycle clubs offer guided tours, forest authorities offer forestry experience, hotels provide luggage transport for hikers or programs like nostalgic motorbike holidays. All programs are coordinated and advertised by the local tourist information center. This emphasis on the “software” of tourism rather than heavy investment in “hardware” like facilities and infrastructure mirrors the behavior of tourists. Especially long term visitors to the Palatine Forest spend most of their time with hiking and other activities outdoors. They are willing to spend more money on environment friendly accommodation or proper garbage collection, but show little interest in sport or leisure facilities. As German tourist resorts face an ever stronger competition from abroad, they concentrate on short term or day trip visitors or special groups like families, who can be attracted by specially tailored programs for children. A broad and comprehensive organization of the space used by tourists and nearby residents for recreation as described above is a necessity for resorts to survive.
We quantitatively evaluated seismic quiescence before moderate earthquakes which occurred within the focal region of the anticipated Tokai earthquake by using the CHASE method. It is shown that the CHASE value decreased exceeding the standard deviation three times in the analyzed period, and for all of the three cases a moderate earthquake occurred afterwards. This result indicates the effectiveness of the CHASE method for the detection of seismic quiescence and the usefulness of the phenomenon as a precursor for the intermediateterm earthquake prediction. A noticeable feature of the seismic quiescence is that the area is much larger than the focal regions of the main shocks. The feature is favorable for the detection of a precursory seismic quiescence, however, it makes difficult to pinpoint the focus of the earthquake which is relevant to the quiescence. Further, the pre-stage activity of small earthquakes in the vicinity of the foci of the three moderate earthquakes were very different. These observational facts seem to suggest that the immediate prediction of earthquake occurrence on the basis of seismicity patterns is difficult.
We invented a completely new simple method and new equipment necessary for high-resolution active fault studies. Vertical thin sections of unconsolidated soil layers are extracted by a newly invented sampler named “Geo-slicer”. Extracted sections can be taken to a laboratory for close examination or can be displayed at a meeting or even stored for future re-examinations (Fig. 1). This method enables us to carry on high-resolution analyses not only in active fault studies but also in other fields of Quaternary sciences with less expenditure of time, labor and money. We made three different-sized Geo-slicers and tested them successfully in the field. A Geo-slicer is made of steel and has a simple structure composed of a box and its shutter (Figs. 2 and 3). Several devices are implemented to the box and the shutter, such as wedge-shaped side walls and a stopper at the bottom of the box for easy pull-out of the equipment and steady-holding of samples (Fig. 4). For sampling, we firstly intrude the box vertically down into the ground by using a vibro-hammer (Photo 1) and then shutter sliding along the thin slits attached to the both sides of the box, and pull out the equipment containing samples. The extracted layers of sediments are surprisingly undisturbed and show almost the same features as previously observed on trench walls excavated close to the extraction sites (Photos 2 and 3). The largest sample collected by this method is 150 cm wide, 270 cm long (deep) and 8-15 cm thick (Photo 4). This sampling method is far more effective on active fault studies than the conventional trench excavation technique and we will be able to carry out three-dimensional analysis of active faulting, restoration of horizontal fault slips and so on for paleoseismological studies (Fig. 6).
Myojin Knoll Caldera is located on the broad volcanic edifice of Myojin Knoll and is one of the twelve calderas along the front of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) Arc. The caldera floor is about 3×4 km in diameter and lies at a depth of about 1, 400 m. Myojin Knoll is composed of three acoustically defined stratigraphic units, 1A, 1B, and 1C. These are correlated respectively with three lithologic units : stratified volcanic breccia, massive volcanic breccia and rhyolitic lava. These same lithologies were observed during submersible dives using Shinkai 2000. The volume of these units making up Myojin Knoll is Unit1A, 17.5 km3; Unit 1B, 64 km3; and Unit 1C, 48.3 km3. The mean density of Myojin Knoll is about 1.84 g/cm3, based on the calculated volumes and assumed densities of Unit 1A, 1B, and 1C. Using this density for Bouguer corrections, there is neither a high nor a low Bouguer anomaly associated with the caldera. This pattern is more typical of anomalies associated with volcanic craters rather than with Krakatau-type calderas. Three dipole type magnetic anomalies have been recognized, one on the north caldera rim, another on the west rim, and a third on the central cone. The anomaliy associated with the central cone is small, reflecting its relatively small volume. Three mechanisms are suggested for the formation of the Myojin Knoll Caldera : (1) the caldera formed as a pumice cone, (2) it formed by collapse of the pre-caldera stratovolcano that formed Units 1B and 1C, and (3) it formed by the destruction of the pre-caldera stratovolcano as a result of the explosive eruption of the huge volume of pumice associated with Unit 1A. The gravity and magnetic data presented here suggest that the models of the pumice cone and the explosive destruction of the pre-caldera stratovolcano are preferable to the model of a collapsing stratovolcano.
This study attempts to identify internal formation processes of the Muroran steel industrial community by complex steel mills in Hokkaido, the first iron-works of private enterprise in Japan. It then constracts an internal formation process of single manufacturing communities by comparing Muroran with the Kamaishi iron mining-manufacturing region in Iwate Prefecture, the Ube coal mining-manufacturing region in Yamaguchi Prefecture, and the Hitachi copper mining-electrical manufacturing region in Ibaraki Prefecture. The results of the study are summarized as follows. 1) Internal formation processes of the Muroran steel industrial community has lead to the following results. 1. Muroran started its business as a modern steel industry. Manufacturing community of the Nippon Steel Works consists of a company community and the surrounding affiliated community. A company community of the Nippon Steel Works formed a unipolar concentric zonal structure, in which a productive, a commercial service, and a residential functions were located around the office. The Muroran ironworks formed manufacturing community of a unipolar zonal structure. A unipolar concentric zonal structure corresponds with the cases of Kamaishi, Ube and Hitachi. 2. Muroran formed manufacturing city of multipolar zonal structure with two company communities. 3. When the system of making steel from are in the same plant was introduced, the Muroran iron works community grew into twice the size while maintaining a unipolar concentric zonal structure. It is termed an expanded unipolar concentric zonal structure. Muroran formed manufacturing city of a multi-expanded polar concentric zonal structure with two company communities. 4. A expanded polar concentric zonal structure of the Muroran iron works grew and included a unipolar concentric zonal structure of the Nippon Steel Works. It is formed a core concentric zonal structure. By the enlargement of a productive functions, commercial service and residential districts was spread into the surrounding community. As a result, Muroran formed large manufacturing city of a core concentric zonal structure. 5. The steel industry declined. But residential districts was expand into the surrounding community, because both employees and retired peoples established their own houses on the outskirts, resulting in the expansion of urbanized area. The affiliated community on the central lowland grew into the Central Business District. Muroran formed city. 6. The above analyses lead to an internal structure model of the Muroran single miningmanufacturing community as proposed in Fig. 5. 2) The comparison of Muroran with the Kamaishi, Ube and Hitachi has lead to the following results. 1. Whereas Ube and Hitachi have developed from a unipolar to a multipolar and to a core concentric zonal structure, steel industry communities experienced different stages. Kmaishi, restricted by topographical features, stays in a unipolar concentric zonal structure, Whereas Muroran with a enough space developed from a unipolar to a core concentric zonal structure. 2. A expanded polar concentric zonal structure was caused by the establishment of the system to produce steel from ore in the same plant. This structure shares an essentially same character with a unipolar concentric zonal structure. Therefore, general internal formation process of single manufacturing communities developed basically from a unipolar concentric zonal structure, to a multipolar and to a core concentric zonal structure. 3. The internal formation process model of a single manufacturing community by complex steel mills is proposed in Fig. 6. 4. An internal formation process of a single manufacturing community by a steel industry is summarized into Fig. 7-A, while the model of complex steel mills is proposed in Fig. 7-B.