Uranium and thorium are found in a variety of rocks and in widely different formations, but the important primary uranium deposits have been found along the belts of “Shield” composed of ancient pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks. Examples are Great Bear Lake veins and Beaverlodge deposits in Canada, Shinkolobwe veins in Belgian Congo and Rum Jungle deposits in Australia. The next important deposits exist in the areas called “Massif” of old crystalline rocks which are known in western Europe, such as French “Massif Central” including La Crouzille veins, Bohemian Massif including Joachimsthal veins and Portuguese-Spanish “Meseta” including Urgei-riça, vein deposits. Besides these the widespread areas of permeable sediments stand out as the most productive. Most excellent examples are horizontally stratified formations of Colorado Plateau in the United States. The most productive thorium deposits would include the peninsula of India, the hinterland behind the coastal areas of Brazil and the piedmont of the Carolinas in the United States.
Many geographers say that the grazing on mountain pastures or upland pastures prevailing in almost all mountain lands in the world dose not exist in Japan. But I think it is not necessarily true. In the mountains of Japan there are many types of an “alp” and “mayen” which are necessary to develop the mountain grazing. A pasture on a gentle slope extending from just upon the forest line downwards is a type of alp, and so, a pasture on summit, plateaus, or higher crests in an other type of alp. Its examples are so many in Japan. If the pasture located over 900 m. were an alp, such pastures would be numberless. A pasture on lower slope or foot hill is a type of mayen. Its examples are a few. Many pastures in Hokkaido and eastern part of Aomori prefecture, have the characters of lowland pasture. Mountain pastures in Japan groups in following four regions ; north-eastern parts in Ôu, dispersed portions from southern Ôu to central upland in Honshu, middle and eastern parts on Chugoku mountains, and central Kyushu (Fig. 1). Those regions are mountain lands which are used roughly, and have low producing capacity of agriculture. The Grazing regions in eastern Japan are in situ correspondence to the unstable regions of rice culture. There are several types of mountain grazing in Japan, as follows ; (1) Type of grazing throughout the warm seasons. (2) Type of grazing in spring and autumn on high and cool land. (3) Type of grazing in spring and autumn on low-altitude and warm-climate land. (4) Type of grazing in three seasons. (5) Type of grazing in one season. (6) Type of daytime grazing. (7) Type of grazing of combined form. Some types have a grazing in the intermediate seasons on mayen, that is a lesser transhumance, or estivage. But the proper or greater transhumance lack in Japan. Some types are turned into new types i. e. the type of free grazing on forests and fields to the type of grazing on pasture, or the grazing in spring and autumn to the grazing in one season, or vice versa. Certain similar kinds of geographical phenomena have a tendency to be seen grouped in a certain area ; i, e. (1) and (2) types group on eastern Japan, (3) group on western Japan, (4) and (5) group on central Kyushu, and (6) group on Tazima province. The horses and cattle with few caretakers are grazed in those grazing regions. Some pastures have not a hut and caretaker. Japanese graze a smaller number of animals on the mountain pastures than that europeans on the alp, for animal densities in Japan is much less than that in mountain lands in Europe.
Different types of minor faults are well developed in the Neogene strata extensively distributed in the Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. In the Miura group, however, the development of minor faults is confined to its lower part, i. e., the Kamakura superformation. Although the characters of a minor fault are generally different in various places, each minor fault may probably be originated in an unconsolidated or subconsolidated sediment. Minor fault of this kind is provisionally called “intraformational fault” by the writers. In this paper, the characteristic features of the intraformational faults developed in the Kamakura superformation are described in detail, and the mechanisms of their origination are considered from the stratigraphical and sedimentological standpoints of view. As to the mechanisms of origination of intraformational faults, different opinions have hitherto been expressed by some Japanese geologists. According to the writers' present opinion, the principal mechanisms of the intraformational faults in the Kamakura superformation are as follows : 1) Differential subsidence of sea-bottom which occurred during the deposition of strata. 2) Submarine sliding which occurred during the deposition of strata. 3) Differential compaction of strata caused by the lateral changes in rock-facies as well as in thickness of strata.
The “degradinite” is much discussed in relation to the petrographical classification for our tertiary coal. The microscopical nature of “degradinite” is the same as that of R. Thiessen's “humic degradation matter”, which is correlated to a part of “collinite” in the european coal petrographical classification. Therefore the category of “degradinite” is also included in that of “collinite”. I should like to provisionally adopt “degradinite” as the term for the ground-mass or matrix of our coal, because the modes of appearance of “collinite” under the microscope are changed by different conditions of observation (transmitted light, reflected light : dry or oil immersion system). Accordingly our dull coal does not come under the category of “durite”.
The Tsuruno-yu hot spring is situated near the Ogochi Dam which is now under construction on the upstream reach of the Tama river. After the construction of Ogochi Dam, the site of the spring will be sunken about 82 meters below the high water surface. This article deals with the results of the geological survey and the long range hydrographic studies of the spring water. It has been revealed that the site of spring coincides with the region of lenticular sandstone intercalated in slate beds. Both Volume and temperature of spring water are closely related to the amount of rainfall.