China is a large country and various kinds of metallic minerals are widely spread. Although many mines are still in the hands of the natives, some for example of iron and coal, are worked with the aid of a foreign capital. The mountain gold is obtained in the northern part of Hopei along the Great Wall and the eastern part of Shantung. In the upper course of the Yang-tze-kiang valley, in the province of Szechuan, placer gold is frequently met with. Rich copper mines are found in the middle part of the Yangtze-kiang (Hupei), also in Tagishan mountain range of Hunan, and the Tonchuan district of Yunnan. These mines are in the contact region of limestone and granite. The ores of the above places also contain much gold. Iron deposits are distributed in many provinces, the biggest being in Lungyen of Tsahar, Shantung, Shansi, Anhwei, Hupei and Fukien. Lead and zinc mines are worked in Suikawshan of Hunan and Chekiang. Antimony is found in Hunan and tin in Hunan, Kwangsi and Yunnan. These two metals are famous in the world. Mercury of Kweichow; tungusten, molybdenum and bismuth of Kwangtung and Fukien are alf: D very famous. China has an old history and the mining there was in great progress, but after the Min-Dynasty the progress of all chinese local industries (like mining) were checked by reason of the centralisation of power just as in Japan where the Tokugawa-Shoguns afraid of the local Daimyes checked their becoming too rich. On account of wide distributed of small mines in China, the production of antimony and tungusten becomes very great. On a similar reason, the production of other minerals in China has a hope to grow in future.
From olden times the Chinese held the Hwangho (Yellow River) as the sole representative of the Chinese rivers so that when they said ho (river) it meant the Hwaugho. This is quite intelligible when we think the ancient Chinese civilization has developed in the basin of the same river. Geologically as the basin of the river consists of loess which is yellow-coloured, this colour made a great impression on a Chinese mind. A stretch of fertile plain along the river was not only the joy of the ancient tillers of the soil, but at the same time the dread because of the inundations of the river which were formidable. Indeed, this joy and dread created many myths concerning the source of the river. The first information about this source was given by Chang Chien of the Chien Han Dynasty in the 2nd century B. C.. According to his writing, the Tarim River in Chinese Turkestan is mentioned as the origin, the water at first flowing into the Lob-nor, then running underground for some distance finally emerges into Koko-nor district, where it flows into the Hwangho, although the exact places where the water disappears and again comes out are not given. This is the so-called theory of complex sources. However the increase of the geographical knowledge of Tibet in the 8th. century gave birth to a theory of simple source, which held Odun. Tala, in Koko-nor for the real source of the river. In the 13th. century this theory was confirmed, the waters flowing into the present Oduu Tala having been actually seen, though there still remained bilievers in the theory of complex sources. At the beginning of the 18th. century the theory of a single source became more certain, a map made by the actual survey of the land in the reign of Emperor Kanghsi of the Ching Dynasty having been published. At the end of the 19th. century, Prschewalski, a Russian explorer, scientifically proved the truth of the single source theory. The Hwangho was, as it is now, narrow in its lower course, and the river-bed has a remarkable tendency to rise owing to the deposition of sediments carried.