In this paper the author summarized the researches done in Japan on the relation between sunspots and meteorological phenomena. The idea common to almost all the researchers is that the sunspots as an index of solar activity cause the variations of atmospheric pressure on the earth namely, as the conditions of the earth's atmosphere which receives solar radiation are varying according to seasons and locations, the changes in solar radiation due to sunspots cause the variations of the distribution of atmospheric pressure, which result in disturbances of air currents and in climatic variations. And these disturbances are almost strongly effected, in Japan, by the changes in the intensity of the North Pacific High and by the migration of its center. A few Japanese researchers are making use of the faculae instead of sunspots in their researches, and they consider the degree of the faculae's facing to the earch as the solar activity index, and this consideration seems to be an excellent one perhaps unseen in other countries.
Japan is a land of disasters, frequently visited by disastrous accidents primarily caused by climatic or meteorological phenomena. In the present paper the writer describes various climatic phenomena that are closely related with natural disasters In Japan.
産業と交通が目覚しい進歩をみせ, また古い時代の伝統や地形に割約されることの少ないアメリカ合衆国の都市は, 近代都市としてまことに典型的な発達を示している。ゴバン割の道路網・高層建築・公園・博物館等いまさら挙げるまでもなく, わが国の都市の整備に参考となる点が少なくない。しかし経済的条件の相違や地方行政制度の異るところから, アメリカの都市に関する諸資料は, わが国の都市の概念をそのまま適用して理解し難い点もかなりある。この理解に役立つために都市の規模と機能の関係および行政区画に関する地理的問題の2点について述べたい。 本稿は筆者が1950年度ガリオア資金学生として, ウイズコンシン大学在学中G.T.Trewartha教授ほかの指導をいただいた研究に基ぐが, なお具体的データとして同大学農村社会学J.H.Kolb教授のモノグラフ, 同氏共著のA Study of Rural Societyおよびオツクスフオード大学R. E. Dickinson教授のCity Region and Regionalismによるところ多大である。
The Nankai Trench On the bathymetric chart of the offing of Shikoku, one may distinguish the Nankai Trench running from WWS. to EEN., which lies between the continental slope and the oceanic basin. The trench is enclosed in the 4, 600m. isobath, whose width is 60km. to W, but it tends a little narrower eastward. The bottom is rather flat and shallow, containing subellipsoidal or suborbicular deeps enclosed in the 5, 000m. isobath, which stand in a line parallel to the trench. To the south of Ise Bay the trench, however, turns to NE, and maintaining the direction, reaches the south of Suruga Bay, and, while approaching the Bay, it becomes narrower in width, but particularly increasing the inclination of the bottom. At the terminal, where the 3, 600m. isobath passes, the trench becomes 10km, in width, and the bottom is lifted to 1, 000m. higher than in the south of Shikoku. Concerning the tectonic character of the Nankai Trench, it should be necesary to denote the 3 phases of the tectonic movement of the Fossa Magna : 1) The pushing of the Shichito batholith into the outerzone (Akigawa series) of Middle Honshu at the neck of the Izu Peninsula, by the lateral thrust of the Shichito Trench, and the consequent occurrence of the great curving of the Median Line, which is manifested by the Toyohashi-Suwa-B5s5 arc. 2) The making of the Itoigawa-Nirazaki-Hakone line, along which the occurrence of the 60 km. shifting of the eastern wing of the arc by the continual thrust of the Shichito Trench. 3) On the western wall of the Fossa Magna, the building up of the Echelon of Akaishi, Kiso and Hida Mt. ranges which are subjected to the shearing pressure of the 60 km. shifting of the eastern wing. The time of the tectonic movement is assigned to the beginning of the Miocene. The orogenesis seems, hewever, to have twice *occurred in history, the first, in the beginning of the Miocene, and the 2nd in the early Pleistocene. The latter movement is considered to be the repetition of the movement of the Miocene ; that is, 'the pushing of the Shichito batholith into the Misaka series containing Lepidocyclinl, which formed an arc of the Misaka-Miura-Boso, while the eastern wing of the Fossa Magna is subjected to the lateral thrust from the Shichito Trench, which is manifested by the geologic structure of the Neogene series deposited in the Fossa Magna and the Boso Peninsula. The Nankai Trench takes part in the tectonic movement of the Fossa Magna : the trend of the trench is parallel to the Median Line and accords with the Echelon of Akaishi, Kiso and Hida Mt. ranges; the narrowing of the terminal and the upraising of the bottom due to the movement of the eastern wing of the Fossa Magna, which moved to NW. along the Itoigawa-Nirazaki-Hakone line. According to the chart, the Nankai Trench appears to take the course to SE. to the south of the Straits of Bungo and to run along the Kyushu-Palau geanticline of Dr, Hess, though it ought ordinarily to stretch SW. and connect with the Ryukyu Trench. The oceanic basin which delimits the southern side of the Nankai Trench appears to be the true ocean floor corresponding to that of the Pacific, It extends to SE. to unite itself to the Pacific there is, however, in the way Sulpher volcanic I. which erupted at the beginning of the Recent time. 40 years ago, the oceanic basin is properly termed “South Japan Sea” by Dr. B. Koto. The thrust under the Nippon Trench from the Pacific bottom may act upon the floor of the South Japan Sea through the Shichito submarine ridge, and may be dynamic source pressing on the Nankai Trench and southern Shikoku. The Block Movement of Shikoku
The recent developments in geophysical exploration all through the world are shortly reviewed. The subjects in this paper are the following : 1. Introduction. 2. Geophysical exploration in coal fields, 3. Geophysical exploration in oil and gas fields. 4. Geophysical exploration in mining. 5. Engineering geophysical exploration such as underground water, dam-sites, etc. Petroleum exploration geophysics in the United States of America have been sweepingly developed, while coal exploration geophysics as well as mining and engineering geophysics in Japan have comparatively advanced.
By the boring records of hot springs which were bored in the past, the depth of the base rock and the underground structure of Kofu District have been found, and the presumptive east-west and north-south geological cross sections of Kofu City down to I Km under the ground are drawn. Next, distribution chart of temperature and pH of hot springs are shown, thus there are clarified the relation between the geological structure and the temperature and pH of hot springs.