Covered with short grass and bushes and called llano estacado by Spanish explorers, the Texas Panhandle constitutes the southern part of the American High Plains. Following the decline of the open range cattle industry in the late nineteenth century, large-scale cattle ranches appeared, such as LIT, LS, and XIT. Irrigation has rapidly expanded in the region during the past fifty years. It supports production of corn and grain sorghum (milo) in the flat plains of the northern Panhandle and wheat and cotton in the southern Panhandle. Cattle ranches still dominate in the undulating and sloping country of the Canadian River valley. This paper examines the nature of cattle ranching in the Texas Panhandle during the age of irrigation that promoted differentiation of land use. Hartley and Oldham counties are chosen for our intensive field study. Large-scale ranches are identified on the map using farm plats, topographic maps, and aerial photographs. They vary in size, from family-operated ranches of 2, 000 hectares to corporate ranches exceeding 40, 000 hectares. Historic ranch names such as LIT and LS are still maintained by contemporary owners. The cow-calf operation is still the basic method in this region, while some beef cattle ranches, not owning cows, depend on purchased yearlings. Others combine cow-calf operations with raising yearlings. As a single animal is given 12 hectares of pasture, 150 to 200 head are grazed on a 4, 000 hectares ranch. Calves born on the ranch during the spring are sold at livestock auctions in Dalhart and Amarillo to farmers, who graze them in wheat fields during the winter. In March, farmers sell their yearlings weighing around 200 kilograms at livestock auctions to ranchers. After being grazed on pasture and reaching 300 kilograms in the fall, they are finally sold to the neighboring feedlots for finishing. Therefore, cattle transactions at the Dalhart livestock auction have peak periods in March and October. The Texas Panhandle has a concentration of feedlots. They fatten two-year old cattle weighing 300 kilograms for four months until they reach 570 kilograms. They are large-scale commercial feeders, with the largest raising 85, 000 head. Agribusiness companies such as Continental Grain and Cargill operate large feedlots. Some local feedlot owners operate large ranches in order to secure a supply of cattle. Large beef packing plants are also concentrated in the Texas Panhandle for processing locally finished beef cattle. Beef packers, feedlots, ranches and wheat growers of the Texas Panhandle are interrelated, taking advantage of the groundwater resources of Ogallala Aquifer. Cattle ranches are the basis of the feedlot and beef-packing industries, while they depend on local wheat growers for winter grazing. Unlike the cattle industry in the late nineteenth century and first half of the twentieth century, contemporary cattle-ranching industry in the Texas Panhandle represents a regional change that took place in the American High Plains in response to the opportunities offered by groundwater exploitation.
Recently, studies of industrial spaces have taken several perspectives. For example, a Locality study, especially in the United Kingdom, studies not only economic aspects but also social and political aspects. This paper discusses the changing locality of the industrial city of Mizushima, Okayama pref. which was industrialized in a period of high economic growth. The indicators of a locality study are working and social trends, and the results of elections. However it is difficult to use same indicators for a Japanese industrial city, because locality research may be unique to English cases. Pollution problems, which had been a special topic of debate in local politics, are used as the indicator for industrialization. The topics of members of the assembly, which are recorded in proceedings, are important pointers to the change from an agricultural and fishing village to an industrial city. When it was an agricultural and fishing village (pre-modern period) there were such developments as a new rice field at Mizushima located beside the mouth of Takahashi-river. These are the bottom of industrial area, now. During World War II, a munitions factory was constructed on land reclaimed from the Takahashi river. Air raids destroyed most of the factories. After the war, Okayama pref. decided to invite many large companies. Machine, petrochemical, and steel manufacturing plants began operations. The resulting industrial complex made Mizushima an industrial city. In terms of social structure, old leaders retained power until the agricultural and fishing villages combined to form Kurashiki city. Kojima city and Tamashima city also combined to form part of Kurashiki city. In those areas, old industries supplied a large part of employment. Therefore, it has taken time to change urbanize communities while increasing the population through the inflow of workers for large factories. Secondly, to clarify local politics, there has been debate on pollution problems. Incidentally, labor movements, which are thought to be important in a locality study, did not have much influence on the pollution problems in Mizushima. The first pollution problems occurred with fish and crops. So farming and fishery organizations claimed compensation for damage. Furthermore, pollution problems harmed human health as industrial spaces grew. From the 1960's to the 1970's most Japanese industrial cities had anti-pollution movements, as was the case in Mizushima. There were neighborhood associations and working organizations forming anti-pollution organizations. These spread to form a network organization in Mizushima. Eventually, the anti-pollution movement was restricting to patients with diseases caused by pollution and their supporters. These changes can be seen in the proceedings about pollution problems. At the beginning of the period with pollution problems, there were debates about industrial change, damage to local people, and policy between parties. After pollution problems increased, this topic was shared by all of the inhabitants of Kurashiki city. The debate concentrated on pollution problems, regardless of resident or party or occupation. This led to an administrative policy for the pollution problem. Then pollution damage gradually decreased. The debate moved from pollution to environment problems, which also contains protection of nature, in the latter period. There was much debate by members of the assembly in a local reformist party, and residents of Mizushima were very concerned about improving the environment of living spaces affected by pollution problems. In conclusion, industrialization and urbanization in Mizushima not only involve construction of factories and increase of industrial labor, but urbanization also refers to the living environment sought by local residents.
During and after the period of rapid postwar economic growth, some of the home wells in the town of Ohno occasionally ran dry in winter because of the overuse of groundwater. Since water saving in factories was not successful, the government of Ohno City demanded the abandonment of private pumping to melt snow on roads and roofs, only to be ignored by many residents. Households suffering water shortages were forced to dig deeper wells. In 1977, the government finally prohibited residents from melting snow with groundwater, and, at the same time, began constructing a waterworks. Unfortunately, Ohno had heavy snow in 1980, 1981, and 1984 ; the maximum depth of which was 2.64 meters. Some residents resumed the practice of melting snow with water in spite of the prohibition, and some renewed their wells, or used city water during the winter. As of the late 1990s, it is estimated that one third of households have deep, machine-bored wells. In this process, groundwater has not been recognized as an element of the natural environment to be conserved, but one of the natural resources, for which town residents, industry, and agriculture have competed.
Mt. Kisokoma is located in the northern part of the central Japanese Alps. On the southwest-facing slope of Mt. Kisokoma, patches of bare ground are well developed. This paper presents the extending direction of the patches of bare ground in relation to wind direction, and seasonal changes in the amount of retreat of turf scarps measured with erosion bars. Extending direction of patches of bare ground correspond to the direction of the prevailing westerly wind, which is dominant throughout the year. The results show that the prevailing wind controls the extension of patches of bare ground. The turf scarps retreated most in the Baiu-season. Strong wind accompanied by heavy rain is observed several times during the season, and rain splash wash seems to be the dominant cause of retreat. Negligible retreat of the turf scarps in winter suggests that the turf scarps are protected by snow beds in winter. In spring and autumn, the combination of needle ice and wind erosion might have caused some retreat of the turf scarps.
The Earth was formed about 4.56 Gyr ago. There is little geologic evidence on the Hadean era (4.564.0 Gyr ago). Research on the Hadean may apply inductive and deductive approaches. This paper summarizes the current trend of inductive approach on the basis of information both from inside and outside of the Earth.
Hydrothermal-petroleum and hydrothermally-altered mud in Mud Volcano were collected from the geothermal region of Waiotapu, North Island, New Zealand. Biomarker composition and carbon isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes were examined for these samples, and a characterization was carried for a comparison with hydrothermal-petroleum, hydrothermally-altered mud, and reservoir petroleum. The hydrothermal-petroleum, and hydrothermally-altered mud are characterized by low CPI, low Ts/ (Ts + Tm) ratio, a significant amount of anteiso-alkane and 17 β (H) -hopane, a small amount of isoprenoid alkane and UCM, and lack of hopene and sterene.