地学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1884-0884
Print ISSN : 0022-135X
ISSN-L : 0022-135X
87 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • スンドボリィ オーケ
    1978 年 87 巻 3 号 p. 115-129
    発行日: 1978/06/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    この論文は, 異った気候下の河川営力についての一般的議論を含んでいる。自然の河川営力の正当な知識が, 純粋に科学的理由にとって又社会的利益にとって, きわめて重要である。将来の開発について予測し得る環境危険因子の予報は, 物理的計画においては本質的な要素である。水文学的法則 (regime) と沈積物生産とは, 気候によって大きく支配される。併し, それらは又相互に関連し, 殆んど独立していない多数の異った因子によって影響される。植生, 基盤岩石, 土壌条件, 地形, 水路形態 (geometry) が, これらの因子の若干例である。いくつかの典型的な例が, 異った気候地域からあげられる。北極地域において河流の営力に関する永久凍土の影響が議論され, 例証される。湿潤中緯度気候では, 季節性や冬季の雪氷のあり得る存在の影響が, 他のものとの問で, 議論される。乾燥気候においては植生の部分的欠除や, 大量の急激な洪水流の生起が議論され, それらの営力における意義が強調される。乾燥地帯における, 河流営力とくに河床荷重の運搬と地形景観の一般的地形学的発達との問の密接な関係が指摘される。熱帯では, 植生は他の因子と共にかなり重要な役割を演ずる。例えば, 火山地域における「ラハール」の作用は又, 川の性格に関して重要であるだろう。
    結語の部分では, いくつかの一般的概念が提示される。基礎的な水力学的作用と河川の営力は, 気候や他の外的条件にかかわらず同じであり (同一性の概念), 又多くの川の営力の率とその地形学的堆積学的結果は直接, 間接に, 気候たとえば永久凍土, 河氷, 雪と植生によって支配される (気候制約の概念) ことが指摘される。すべての川には流量と沈積荷重との間に, 河流の営力と地形発達の一般的性格を決定する均衡及び均衡に準ずるものがある (水と沈積物の関連) 。川の作用は, 又流域の他の部分における条件と作用によっているので, 全流域を複合単位として取扱うことが必要である (基礎的単位としての流域) 。異った頻度と大きさについての地形学的事象の重要性は気候と共に変化する。これは更なる研究の重要な課題である (頻度と規模の関連) 。川の営力における人の影響は, 次第に, より重要になっている。人間活動の影響の予測に充分な方法を開発することが必要である (人間の影響) 。営力地形学は長い期間の地形発達において, 気候や他の因子たとえば人間の影響までを蔽って用いることにより, 有用な語となるだろう。
  • 藤原 健蔵
    1978 年 87 巻 3 号 p. 130-151
    発行日: 1978/06/25
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Punjab is the area where the perennial irrigation canals of large-scale were first constructed in the Subcontinent of India. It is indeed true that the larger part of the Punjab has been benefited by the canal networks, while, the area was confronted with a rapid rising of the ground water table, with the result of waterlogging and salinity of fertile land. The serious rising of the water table came to be stabilized with the decrease of rainfall and a series of anti-waterlogging ameliorations, such as the excavation of drains and the boring of tubewells in the first half of the 1960's. With the development of the “green revolution”, tubewells were bored in increasing number and this has resulted in lowering of the water table in certain areas.
    This paper aims to discuss such a water problem in the Punjab in the light of behaviour of hydrologic cycle. The author points out that little understanding of hydrologic cycle of surface and ground water in the time of water use has caused the above water problem.
    The results obtained may be summarized as follows :
    1) In the natural environment existed before the inception of perennial canal irrigation, the system of hydrologic cycle in the Punjab was characterized by a considerable deep level of ground water, most of which were recharged by the influent seepage from river to the doab. In such deep ground water areas of the doab, the water of heavy showers in August and early September were almost lost by the manners of surface run-off and evapotranspiration and rarely reached to ground water table through the soil and aeration zones.
    2) The rising of water table caused by canal irrigations has greatly modified the linkages of hydrologic cycle. That is, vertical transfers of water between the surface and the ground water storages has become actively and resulted in the increase of evapotranspiration. And the lateral transfer of water from river to the doab has turned the outfluent from the doab to river.
    3) Irrigation tracts in the Punjab can be grouped into two types in the light of mode of fluctuation of ground water table. In the first group (UBDC, SC-A, FC), the water table was rised by 0.10-0.13 meter/year from 1942 to 1955 and has been stabilized at 2.0-3.5 meters below the surface since 1956. In the second group (SC-B, WYC-B), the water table has been continuously rised by 1.55-0.65 meters/year since 1954 when the Bhakra Canal System was opened. Fluctuations of the water table of the first group can be divided into five stages. These modes and stages of fluctuation were discussed in connection with changed in rainfall and irrigation water managements.
    4) Investigations were made into relationships between the fluctuation of water table and its controlling factors in UBDC. On the ground of the above investigations, calculation was made regarding the critical amount of rainfall and rainfall plus irrigation water, less than which the ground water table does not fluctuate. The critical amount of rainfall and rainfall plus irrigation water is 660 mm and 1, 216 mm in year, respectively. Based on these, irrigation water at the monsoon period should be controlled.
    5) In the first group of irrigation tracts, where tubewells are intensively bored, the water table has turned the tendency of lowering in the latter half of the 1960's. Total decrease in amount of ground water storage calculated based on the above lowering on the above lowering are about 250 million cubic meter per year.
    Therefore, it seems that pumping of the ground water by tubewells has already exceeded to the safe yield. The author advocates that a detail calculation of the water balance on irrigation tracts be made in order to make a well-balanced management of water and to prevent cultivators from the disorder of water use which would be caused by the over-lowering of the water table.
  • 桂 忠彦
    1978 年 87 巻 3 号 p. 152-160
    発行日: 1978/06/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    UJNR is formally called as United States-Japan Conference on Development and Utilization of Natural Resource. This is a organization for mutual co-operation between U. S. and Japanese governmental science and technological laboratories. Now there are 16 panels under UJNR for various study fields. In these panels 6 panels are concerned with the ocean.
    The sea bottom surveys panel is one of them and the Japanese chairman is Dr. Akio MOGI, who is the director of surveying division, Hydrographic Department and Dr. Gordon G. LILL, Deputy director of National Ocean Survey, NOAA took the U. S. chairman's post. U. S.-Japan joint meeting is holding annually but the place is regularly changed between U. S. and Japan. Last year, 6thj oint meeting was held at Tokyo and next 7th meeting will be held at Honolulu, Hawaii on August 6 to 8, 1978.
    At the last meeting, there are many paper presentations which are related to sea bottom survey methods. In these papers, Dr. SATO and Dr. MALAHOFF made their presentations on submarine geology.
    Dr. SATO's theme is the structure and origin of the continental margin around Japanese Islands. He discussed submarine geological problems around Japanese continental margin. Continental shelf is divided into 6 types. The genesis of continental shelf is considered as erosion of eustatic sea level change during glacial age and tectonic movement. Lower continental shelf (far less than-140 m) is classified into 4 types. Continental slope and trench slope show absolute rising and absolute subsidence, which offered unsolved problems.
    Dr. MALAHOFF reported Baltimore Canyon Slump Sediment Project. This project was carried out at the southern part of Baltimore Canyon off Delaware Bay, U. S. Atlantic Coast side. Ordinary survey and actual observation by submergible “Alvil” were carried out. Sea bottom of the investigated area is consisted of very fine and soft sediment and it covered with older slump sediments which shaped irregular topography. This unconsolidated sediments easily moved down to lower part of continental rise.
  • 赤木 祥彦
    1978 年 87 巻 3 号 p. 161-166
    発行日: 1978/06/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 前田 四郎
    1978 年 87 巻 3 号 p. 167-168
    発行日: 1978/06/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • A. Sundborg
    1978 年 87 巻 3 号 p. Plate1-Plate2
    発行日: 1978/06/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
feedback
Top