The purpose of this study is to propose a method for analyzing regional factors to understand the quantitative characteristics of water supply-demand system on watershed scale. The Naka River basin and the Kinu-Kokai River basin are the study areas selected for a comparative discussion. In particular, urban residential water supply systems of Mito and Mitsukaido cities, which are located in far downstream areas of the Naka and Kinu-Kokai River basins, respectively, are surveyed. In this study, three regional factors are examined— landform, land use, and water rights. Concretely, basin form ratio and basin relief ratio by main tributary basin are calculated first. Then, land use combination types by tributary basin are clarified using modified Weaver's method. Finally, the spatial and quantitative characteristics of water demand in the Naka and Kinu-Kokai River basins are analyzed with data on water rights. As a result of the case study, the analytical indicators and methodological approach this study proposes demonstrate their utility in a discussion of problems associated with urban water resources on watershed scale.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate a social simulation using a dynamic spatial microsimulation model for predicting demolitions of Kyomachiya, which are traditional wooden townhouses and core elements of the historical landscape of Kyoto City, Japan. This model is also applied to estimate the number of Kyomachiya surviving when preservation policies are introduced. The results are summarized as follows: (a) Spatially disaggregated synthetic microdata of Kyomachiya residents were constructed by combining multiple existing datasets in a manner whereby the sums of synthetic microdata agree with those of census datasets. Using synthetic microdata allows us to analyze detailed household demographics and the process of Kyomachiya demolitions at small area and individual levels. (b) Decision-making units such as individuals, households, and Kyomachiya can be modeled in the same way that they exist, behave, and interact with each other in the real world using object-oriented modeling. Another merit is that re-using and extending classes are possible due to object-oriented architecture. (c) The results of simulations show that, during the next 15 years, only 67.3% of Kyomachiya will be preserved and the proportion of the population aged 60 and over will increase from 43.9% to 51.6%. On the other hand, when a comprehensive preservation policy is implemented, those numbers are reduced to 82.5% and 49.2%, respectively. In this manner, a dynamic spatial microsimulation model is useful for understanding the process and cause-and-effect of Kyomachiya demolitions under the status quo. Furthermore, what-if simulations on the basis of Kyomachiya preservation policies help to evaluate which policy is most effective for reducing the number of demolitions.
The depositional process of the Latest Pleistocene to Holocene shallow-marine and fluvial successions is investigated using five 14C-dated borehole cores from the Kiso River delta, central Japan. The delta succession provides high-quality records of the transgression and regression of an enclosed delta system and reveals the development of fluvial-dominated coastal lowlands. Based on a facies analysis, the cored sediments are classified into five sedimentary units: A) basal gravel, B) fluvial and intertidal sand and silt, C) transgressive lag deposit, prodelta mud, and sandy silt, D) delta-front-slope sandy silt and sand, and delta-front-platform sand, and, E) delta-plain and fluvial sand and silt. Detailed age-depth curves of these cores are reconstructed based on 108 AMS 14C ages including 83 new 14C ages. These curves show patterns similar to those of temporal variations in accumulation rates, and are divided into four sections (I to IV) from the base to the top: I mainly consists of unit B with rapid accumulation (7.3-21.4mm/yr); II mainly consists of unit C with moderate accumulation (2.4-2.8mm/yr); III mainly consists of unit D with rapid accumulation (6.7-17.8mm/yr); and, IV consists of unit D and E with moderate accumulation (1.3-3.9mm/yr). The section boundaries of I/II and II/III, which coincide with the unit boundaries of B/C and C/D, reflect the inundation of a flood plain by seawater, developing a bay environment, and the subsequent progradation of the delta–front slope, respectively. The ages of these boundaries constrain the estimation of the expanding rate of the bay and progradation rates of the delta. The expanding rate of the bay is estimated at 10m/yr during the period 10200-7900 cal yrs BP, and the progradation rates of the delta are 3-4m/yr (6500-4100 cal yrs BP), 5m/yr (4100-1300 cal yrs BP), and 10m/yr (1300 cal yrs BP to the present). These age data indicate that the transition from transgression to regression occurred between 7800 and 7300 cal yrs BP. The geological cross-section along the Kiso River along with the isochrones constructed by over a hundred 14C dates indicates the following depositional history of the Kiso River delta: (1) from 10000 to 7280 cal yrs BP (K-Ah horizon) —During the expansion of the bay, onlap of unit C on unit B is visible, and unit C overlapped all the core sites just before the K-Ah fall, and (2) from 7280 cal yrs BP to present—Isochrones younger than 6500 cal yrs BP are similar to each other and cross the unit boundaries of C/D and D/E. This demonstrates that units C–E are contemporaneous heterotopic facies formed in response to delta progradation after the K-Ah fall.
A methodology to estimate long-term hydrochemical evolution of deep underground is indispensable for the safe geological isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study demonstrates the methodology by illustrating scenarios of past geological events, processes, and their interrelationships with present-day hydrochemical conditions. Besides, we infer long-term variations of groundwater chemistry at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan. The region is underlain mainly by Neogene to Quaternary marine sedimentary rocks, (the Wakkanai Formation (Fm) and the overlying Koetoi Fm: siliceous and diatomaceous mudstones). During various events in the geological past, such as deposition, compaction, uplift, and denudation, and the more recent Neotectonic activities in this area, highly permeable hydrogeological structures formed at depths not over than 400m below ground level in the Wakkanai Fm. The hydrogeological system can be subdivided into three hydrogeological sub-systems: (1) overlying, relatively low permeability Koetoi Fm., (2) highly permeable, upper Wakkanai Fm at depths less than 400m and (3) relatively low permeability Wakkanai Fm, at depths greater than 400m. The present-day hydrochemical conditions in each sub-system have been influenced by hydrogeological properties and hydraulic conditions over a long period. In subsystems 1 and 2, recharging with meteoric water flushed connate seawater during uplifting and denudation during the last 1Ma. In contrast, fossil seawater with one-third to one-half the salinity of present-day seawater has been preserved in subsystem 3. The relatively low permeability sequence in sub-system 3 was formed by the compaction of diatomaceous mudstone during subsidence prior to 1.0Ma. After that, changes of climatic conditions and geographical features would not have influenced groundwater flow. The groundwater chemistry evolved from seawater during long-term geochemical diagenesis in a relatively closed system. The long-term variations of salinity probably range from that of seawater to that of present-day groundwater. The occurrence of secondary minerals shows that the buffer reactions of carbonate and sulphide minerals have preserved the near neutral pH and reducing condition since initial diagenesis immediately after deposition of the rock formation.
The timing of the maximum glacial advance during the last glacial period has been determined on the basis of stratigraphic relationships between marker tephras and ridges that form the lowest moraine of Mt. Shiroumadake (2,932 m), at the northern part of the Hida Range in central Japan, extending in the north-south direction for approximately 100 km. The glacier attained its maximum advance in early MIS 4 immediately before the fall of Tateyama E tephra (Tt-E, 70 MIS ka) and retreated with repetitive stagnation. When compared to published information on the northwest and southern parts of the range, glacial fluctuations on Mt. Shiroumadake and other high mountains were common around the fall of Tt-E. The glaciers appear to have attained their maximum advances synchronously in early MIS 4 over the Hida Range.